The most complete dictionary of English video terminology on the Web. Better search functionality is coming soon.
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1-Bit Color    An image that consists of pixels that can only have one of two colors, usually black and white. 1D Lookup Table    Simple data map used in color grading to transform one color space into another. 1D LUT    1D lookup table 2-perf    A 35 mm motion picture camera film format introduced by Technicolor Italia in 1960. 2-pop    A 1 kHz tone that is one frame long and placed 2 seconds before the start of a film or television program. 3:2 Pull-down    The method used to map the 24 fps of film onto the 30 fps of 525-line TV. 3CCD    Three-CCD camera 3D Color Matrix Meter    A technology developed by Nikon that automatically evaluates the best exposure. 3D Lookup Table    A data table used in color grading to map one color space to another. 3D LUT    3D lookup table 3D Modeling    The process of creating 3D objects on a computer. 3D Television    A television that conveys depth perception to the viewer by employing techniques such as stereoscopic display, multi-view display, 2D-plus-depth, or any other form of 3D display. 3DTV    3D television 3GPP    3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP2    3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 3rd Generation Partnership Project    An umbrella for a number of standards organizations that develop protocols for mobile telecommunications. 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2    A collaboration between telecommunications associations to make a globally applicable third-generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project. 4:1:1    In 4:1:1 chroma subsampling, the horizontal color resolution is quartered, and the bandwidth is halved compared to no chroma subsampling. 4:2:0    In 4:2:0, the horizontal sampling is doubled compared to 4:1:1. 4:2:2    A commonly used term for a component digital video format. 4:2:2 Component Digital    An early (1986) SMPTE standard format for recording and storing digital video at a resolution 720 × 486 (NTSC). 4:4:4    Digital images or video in which all color components have the same sampling rate, thus not using chroma subsampling. 4fsc    The sampling rate of a D2 digital video signal with respect to the sub-carrier frequency of an NTSC or PAL analog video signal. 4K UHD    A standard for video display with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 and an aspect ratio of 16:9. 5.1    The common name for six-channel surround sound audio systems. 5K    A resolution of 5120 × 2880 pixels. 7/16    7/16 DIN connector 7/16 DIN Connector    A 50 Ω threaded RF connector used to join coaxial cables. 8 Mm    A compact videocassette record/playback* tape format which uses eight-millimeter wide magnetic tape. A worldwide standard established in 1983 allowing high-quality video and audio recording. 8 Position 8 Contact    A modular connector commonly used to terminate twisted pair and multi-conductor flat cable. 8K UHD    A standard for video display with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 and an aspect ratio of 16:9. 8MM    8 mm 8P8C    8 position 8 contact 8VSB    The modulation method used for broadcast in the ATSC digital television standard. 24p    A video format that operates at 24 frames per second. 24Psf    24 frame per second, progressive segmented frame. 30-degree Rule    A basic film editing guideline that states the camera should move at least 30 degrees relative to the subject between successive shots of the same subject. 35mm    A film gauge used in filmmaking, and the film standard. In motion pictures that record on film, 35 mm is the most commonly used gauge. 48sF    The process of taking 24-frame progressive images and deconstructing them to produce 48 interlaced frames each with half of the number of lines of resolution to allow some HDTV processors to pass the signal and for viewing on an interlaced monitor without flicker. 180-degree Rule    An imaginary line drawn across two subjects, setting a boundary for the camera angles. The action axis is used to anchor the continuity of action on screen. 480i    A vertical resolution of 480 lines, and the i identifies it as an interlaced resolution. 480p    A vertical resolution of 480 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 640 pixels and 4:3 aspect ratio or a horizontal resolution of 854 or less. 576i    A standard-definition video mode originally used for terrestrial television in most countries of the world where the utility frequency for electric power distribution is 50 Hz. 576p    A vertical resolution of 576 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 720 or 704 pixels. 720p    A progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). 1080i    A combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video. 1080p    A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. 1440p    A display resolution of 2560 × 1440 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio.
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A-roll    Main footage used in production. Contrast with B-roll. A/A Roll Editing    Editing from a single source using effects to transition from the source to itself (source "A" to "A") using a picture freeze at the end of one scene to transition the start of the next scene. A/B Roll Editing    Editing from two source VCRs ("A" and "B") to a third (recording) VCR. Typically a switcher or mixer, such as the Digital Video Mixer, is used to provide transition effects between sources. A/X/A Roll Editing    Editing from a single source using effects to transition from the source to itself (source "A" to "A") using a picture freeze at the end of one scene to transition the start of the next scene. AA    Anti-Aliasing AAC    Advanced Audio Coding AAC-HE    High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding AAUI    Apple Attachment Unit Interface Abby Singer Shot    The nickname for the second-to-last shot of the day in movie production settings Above The Line    The creative elements of a production such as the writer, producer, director and actors. AC    Alternating Current AC-3    Audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. Academy Leader    A countdown from 8 to 3 that allows the cinema projectionist to know when to turn on the lamp in order to catch the start of the movie. Academy Ratio    An aspect ratio of a frame of 35mm film when used with 4-perf pulldown. Accelerated Graphics Port    A high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer system, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. Accelerated Motion    The process of slowing the frame rate of a camera down the action appears faster during playback at normal speed. Accent Lighting    A light unit that emphasizes one subject. Accessory Shoe    A mounting point with electrical contacts on the top of a camera used to attach a flash unit or compatible accessory. Achromat    A lens that brings two different wavelengths (typically red and blue) into focus. Achromatic    A device, process or media that uses only variants of a single color tone (hue). Black and white pictures are monochrome images. Achromatic Lens    A lens that brings two different wavelengths (typically red and blue) into focus. Acknowledgment    An expression of a gratitude for assistance in creating an original work. Acousmatic Sound    Sound that is heard without an originating cause being seen. Acoustics    The science and study of recorded or transmitted sound waves. Action    The scene description, character movement, and sounds as described in a screenplay. Action-cam    A digital camera designed for recording action while being immersed in it Action Axis    An imaginary line drawn across two subjects, setting a boundary for the camera angles. The action axis is used to anchor the continuity of action on screen. Action Camera    A digital camera designed for recording action while being immersed in it Action Cutting    The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. Action Point    In scriptwriting: the consequence or outcome of a plot point or story element that is set-up earlier in a screenplay. Action Safe Area    Boundaries within which contents of a television picture are sure to be seen, regardless of masking differences in receiver displays. Active-matrix Liquid-crystal Display    A type of flat-panel display, the only viable technology for high-resolution TVs, computer monitors, notebook computers, tablet computers and smartphones. Active-pixel Sensor    An image sensor where each pixel sensor unit cell has a photodetector (typically a pinned photodiode) and one or more active transistors. Actor    A person who portrays a character in a performance (also actress; see below). Acutance    Describes a subjective perception of sharpness that is related to the edge contrast of an image. AD    Amplitude Distortion AD-LIB    Ad libitum Adapter Ring    A standard lens mount for cameras and other optical assemblies. Adaptive Compression    A type of data compression which changes compression algorithms based on the type of data being compressed. Adaptive Differential Pulse-code Modulation    A variant of differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) that varies the size of the quantization step, to allow further reduction of the required data bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio. Adaptive Multi-Rate Audio Codec    An audio compression format optimized for speech coding. Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding    A family of proprietary audio compression algorithms developed by Sony. ADAT    ADAT Lightpipe ADAT Lightpipe    A standard for the transfer of digital audio between equipment. ADAT Optical Interface    A standard for the transfer of digital audio between equipment. ADC    Analog-to-digital converter Add-on    Third-party software created to add a new feature to an application, such as Premiere or After Effects. Adjustable Camera    A camera with manually adjustable settings for distance, lens openings, and shutter speeds. Ad Libitum    Individual moments during the live presentation when a presenter speaks through their character using words not found in the play's text. Administration Metadata    Provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, and who can access it. ADO    Ampex Digital Optics Adobe Flash Player    Computer software for using content created on the Adobe Flash platform, including viewing multimedia contents, executing rich Internet applications, and streaming audio and video. Adobe RGB Color Space    A color space developed by Adobe Systems, Inc. in 1998 designed to encompass most of the colors achievable on CMYK color printers, but by using RGB primary colors on a device such as a computer display. ADPCM    Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation ADR    Automatic Dialog Replacement Advanced Audio Coding    An audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression designed to be the successor of the MP3 format. Advanced Stream Redirector    A type of XML metafile designed to store a playlist of Windows Media files for a multimedia presentation. Advanced Systems Format    Microsoft's proprietary digital audio/digital video container format especially meant for streaming media. ASF is part of the Media Foundation framework. Advanced Television Systems Committee Standards    Name of the North American organization that sets the standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks. Replaces the analog NTSC standards. Advanced Video Coding     The name of the most common video compression standard for high-definition digital video for resolutions up to 8K. Also known as MPEG-4 AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10. Advanced Video Coding High Definition    A file-based format for the digital recording and playback of high-definition video. AE    After Effects AEL    Auto exposure lock Aerial Perspective    The effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance. Aerial Shot    A shot taken from an airborne device, generally while moving. This technique has gained popularity in recent years due to the growing availability of drones. AES    Audio Engineering Society AES/EBU    A standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices. Commonly known as S/PDIF. AES3    A standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices. Commonly known as S/PDIF. AES10    An Audio Engineering Society (AES) standard that defines the data format and electrical characteristics of an interface that carries multiple channels of digital audio. AF    Autofocus AFM    Audio frequency modulation After Effects    After Effects is to video editing what Photoshop is to image manipulation: an all-encompassing application with a professional toolset designed for anything from titling to character animation, compositing and more. AGC    Automatic Gain Control AGP    Accelerated Graphics Port AI    Artificial intelligence AIA    Automated Imaging Association AIF    Audio Interchange File Format ALAC    Apple Lossless ALC    Automatic Level Control Algorithm    A formula or set of steps used to simplify, modify, or predict data. Aliasing    A side effect of digital signal processing that causes distortion or unwanted artifacts in the reconstruction process. Aliasing can affect both the video and the audio signals. AllVid    A proposal to develop technology enabling smart broadband-connected video devices to access the content on the managed networks of cable operators, telcos, and satellite-TV operators. Alpha Channel    A channel in an image or movie clip that controls the opacity region. Alpha Compositing    The process of combining one image with a background to create the appearance of partial or full transparency. Alter Ego    An alternative self, which is believed to be distinct from a person's normal or true original personality. Alternating Current    An electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. AM    Amplitude Modulation Amateur Television    The transmission of broadcast-quality video and audio over the wide range of frequencies of radio waves allocated for radio amateur (Ham) use. Ambient Lighting    General, non-directional, room light not supplied on purpose by the photographer. Ambient Noise    The total sound in a given area which is particular to that space. American National Standards Institute    A private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. American Shot    A medium-long ("knee") film shot of a group of characters, who are arranged so that all are visible to the camera. American Standard Code For Information Interchange    A standard code for transmitting data, consisting of 128 letters, numerals, symbols, and special codes each of which is represented by a unique binary number. Amiga    First personal computer to be used for digital video creation. Amiga Video Connector    A 23-pin male D-subminiature connector fitted to all personal computers in the Amiga range produced by Commodore International from 1985 to 1994, and by Escom from 1995 to 1996. AMLCD    Active-matrix liquid-crystal display Ammo     A standard wooden clothespin that is used to attach gels to barn doors and other hot items. AMP    Ampere Ampere    Measurement unit for electric current. Ampex Digital Optics    A digital video effects system sold by Ampex. Amplitude    The strength of an electronic signal as measure by its waveform height. Amplitude Distortion    The nonlinear relation of input and output induced harmonics which is a function of voltage fluctuations or power consumption. Amplitude Modulation    A modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AMR    Adaptive Multi-Rate audio codec AMV    AMV video format AMV Video Format    A proprietary video file format, produced for MP4 players, as well as S1 MP3 players with video playback. Anachronism    A chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods. Analemma    A means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions using parallel projection. Analepsis    An interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point in the story. Analog    Opposite of digital. The term refers to the recording (storage and measurement) of an infinitely variable signal gathered from a physical source. In electronics, analog signals are generally acquired through the Composite, S-Video, or Component Video connectors. Analog-to-digital Converter    An electronic component that converts an analog signal to a digital signal. ADC accuracy are rated based on their bandwidth (sampling rate) and signal-to-noise ratio. Analog Monitor    A video display that only accepts input from a composite video signal. Analog Recording    A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal is a physical representation of the waveform of the original signal. Analog Switch-off    The process in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television. Anamorphic    The cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio. Anamorphic Widescreen    A process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium with a narrower aspect ratio. Anamorphosis    A distorted projection requiring the viewer to occupy a specific vantage point or use special devices to recognize an image. Anastigmat    A photographic lens completely corrected for spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Anastigmatic Lens    A photographic lens completely corrected for spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Angle Of Incidence    The angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence called the normal. Angle Of Light    The angle between the orientation of a light source and the viewing direction. Angle Of View    The size of the field covered by a lens, measured in degrees. Angle On    A type of shot. This usually occurs in scenes taking place in large settings. Angular Resolution    The ability of a camera to distinguish the small details of an object; a major determinant of image resolution. Animatics    A simplified mock-up to give a better idea of how a scene will look and feel with motion and timing. Animation    The process of creating a progressively altering image that gives the appearance of continuous motion. Animatronics    Mechatronic puppets. They are a modern variant of the automaton and are often used for the portrayal of characters in films and in theme park attractions. Anime    Computer animation style originating from Japan. Anisotropic Noise    Some noise sources show up with a significant orientation in images. ANSI    American National Standards Institute Answer Print    The first print combining picture and sound which is submitted by the laboratory for the customer's approval. Antagonist    Character presented as the chief foe of the protagonist. Anthropomorphism    The attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities, usually animals. Anti-Aliasing    Filtering of erroneous frequencies that are created during the analog to digital conversion process. Anti-reflective Coating    A type of optical coating applied to the surface of lenses and other optical elements to reduce reflection. Anticlimax    In a plot, a situation in which something which would appear to be difficult to solve is solved through something trivial. Antihero    A main character in a story who lacks conventional heroic qualities and attributes such as idealism, courage, and morality. AOMedia Video 1    An open, royalty-free video coding format designed for video transmissions over the Internet. AOV    Angle of View AP    Associate producer Aperture    A small, variable-size hole in the camera that allows light to reach the sensor. Aperture Control    The ring or button on the camera lens that adjusts the size of the opening in the iris diaphragm. Aperture Priority    A setting on some cameras that allows the user to set a specific aperture value (f-number) while the camera selects a shutter speed to match it. Aplanat    A lens that is symmetrical about its aperture stop with four elements in two groups. APO    Apochromat Apochromat    A photographic or other lenses that has a better correction of a chromatic and spherical aberration than the much more common achromat lenses. Apochromatic Lens    A photographic or other lenses that has a better correction of a chromatic and spherical aberration than the much more common achromat lenses. Apple Attachment Unit Interface    A mechanical re-design by Apple of the standard Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) used to connect Ethernet transceivers to computer equipment. Apple Display Connector    A proprietary modification of the DVI connector that combines analog and digital video signals, USB, and power all in one cable. Apple Lossless    An audio coding format, and its reference audio codec implementation, developed by Apple Inc. for lossless data compression of digital music. Apple ProRes    A high quality, lossy video compression format developed by Apple Inc. for use in post-production that supports up to 8K. Application-specific Integrated Circuit    An integrated circuit designed for special rather than general applications. APS    Active-pixel sensor AR    Anti-reflective coating Archetype    A universal character modeled upon those that have been appearing in stories since the time of our ancient ancestors. Archival Image    An image meant to have lasting utility. Archive Footage    Video footage that can be used again in other films. Arc Lamp    A lamp that produces light by an electric arc. Arc Light    A lamp that produces light by an electric arc. Arc Shot    Filming the subject through a moving, encircling camera. Argon    A chemical element used inside the bulbs of incandescent lamps to prevent oxidation of their filaments. Array Camera    A camera that captures information about the light field emanating from a scene. Art Director    The person in charge of supervising and unifying the vision of the film, video or project. Artifact    Any undesired or unintended alteration in data introduced during the processing of the digital video signal. Most digital artifacts are the result of problems with compression, aliasing and/or error diffusion. Artificial Intelligence    Intelligence demonstrated by machines, devices, and software; the term is often used to describe automatic corrective processes during the acquisition or creation of digital videos. Artificial Landscape    A filmmaking technique, subset of montage, in which multiple segments shot at various locations and/or times are edited together such that they appear to all occur in a continuous place at a continuous-time. Artificial Light    Any light source that is not occurring naturally, such as the light produced by electrical means. ASA    The exposure index or speed rating of a film which denotes the film's sensitivity. ASCII    American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASF    Advanced Systems Format ASIC    Application-specific integrated circuit Aside    When a film character breaks the imaginary “fourth wall” and speaks directly to the film viewers. Aspect Ratio    The proportional relationship of an image or video stream's width relative to its height. The most common video aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.3:1) and 16:9 (1.7:1). Asperity Noise    Noise that is caused by minute imperfections in the surface of a recording medium. ASPH    Aspheric lens Asphere    A lens whose surface profiles are not portions of a sphere or cylinder. Aspheric Lens    A lens whose surface profiles are not portions of a sphere or cylinder. Assemble Edit    A linear method of editing in which new clips are placed one after the other in order to assemble the edit. Assembly Editing    A simple tape-based editing technique that consists of adding one segment of recorded programming after another, from one tape onto another. Assistant Editor    An editor that handles the technical and logistical aspects of editing such as synchronizing sound to picture, cutting in temporary sound effects and music, etc. Associate Producer    The person who acts as the liaison between a production company and the various personnel involved in the post production process. Associational Editing    Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. Associative Editing    Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. Astigmatism    A camera defect caused by the inability of a single lens to focus oblique rays uniformly. ASX    Advanced Stream Redirector Asymmetry    The absence of or violation of symmetry that are either expected or desired can have important consequences for a system. Asynchronous    A video signal whose timing differs from that of the system reference signal. Asynchronous Sound    Sound that is indigenous to the action but not precisely synchronized with the imagery on screen. Asynchronous Transfer Mode    A data transmission scheme using self-routing packets of 53 bytes, 48 of which are available for user data. ATA    The electrical interface standard that connects a device, such as a camera, to the PC architecture. ATAPI    ATA ATL    Above the Line ATM    Asynchronous transfer mode Atmosphere    Extras who are staged and photographed to portray normal human traffic needed to add detail in various script situations. Atmospheric Perspective    The effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance. ATRAC    Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding ATSC    Advanced Television Systems Committee Standards ATSC-M/H    A U.S. standard for mobile digital TV that allows TV broadcasts to be received by mobile devices. ATSC Standards    American set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks. Attachment Unit Interface    A physical and logical interface defined in the original IEEE 802.3 standard for 10BASE5 Ethernet. Attenuation    To reduce a signal's strength. Attribution    Acknowledgment as a credit to the copyright holder or author of a work. ATV    Amateur television AU    A simple audio file format introduced by Sun Microsystems. Audible Spectrum    When wave motion in the atmosphere has a frequency that lies between 20 and 15,000 Hz it produces a sound which is apparent to the average human. Audience    A group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music, video games or academics in any medium. Audio-follow-video    During video recording, the video signal is usually accompanied by an audio signal. Audio-to-video Synchronization    The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech. Audio Bridge    An audio track used as a transition between two scenes to ensure continuity. Audio Bus    A mixing network that combines the output of two or more channels. Audio CD    The format standard for audio compact discs (CDs) Audio Effect    A recorded or electronically produced sound that matches the visual action taking place onscreen. Audio Engineer    A professional who helps to produce the audio portion of a recording or a live performance. Audio Engineering Society     Audio Frequency Modulation    Audio Frequency Modulation (AFM) is an audio recording standard used by VHS Hi-Fi stereo, 8mm and Hi8 video systems. AFM is mono on 8mm systems and stereo on Hi8. Audio Interchange File Format    An audio file format developed by Apple Computer to store high quality sampled sound and musical instrument information. Audio Lossless Coding    An extension to the MPEG-4 Part 3 audio standard to allow lossless audio compression. Audio Mixing    The result of combining audio signals from different sources, such as microphones, instruments, recordings, etc. Audio Multicore Cable    A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals Audio Sequencer    The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives, stores and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence. Audio Signal Processing    A subfield of signal processing that is concerned with the electronic manipulation of audio signals. Audio Spectrum    When wave motion in the atmosphere has a frequency that lies between 20 and 15,000 Hz it produces a sound which is apparent to the average human. Audio Video Bridging    A common name for the set of technical standards that provide improved synchronization, low-latency, and reliability for switched Ethernet networks. Audio Video Interleave    A multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows software Audition    A sample performance by an actor, singer, musician, dancer, or other performers. AUI    Attachment Unit Interface Aural    A film element that can be heard (such as an off-screen sound like a dog howling or a gun firing). Auteur    An artist, usually a film director, who applies a highly centralized and subjective control to many aspects of collaborative creative work. Auto Bracketing    A feature of some more advanced devices where the camera will take several successive shots (often three) with slightly different settings. Auto Conform    The process of automatically recreating the online edit from an EDL file created from the offline edit. Autoexposure    Camera mode that automatically calculates and adjusts exposure settings to match (as closely as possible) the subject's mid-tone to the mid-tone of the photograph. Auto Exposure Lock    A DSLR function that allows the camera user to lock the exposure reading from anywhere in the scene. Autofocus    An optical system that uses a sensor, a control system, and a motor to focus on an automatically or manually selected point or area. Automated Imaging Association    The world's largest machine vision trade group. Automatic Dialog Replacement    The process of re-recording dialog in the studio in synchronization with the picture. Automatic Exposure    Camera mode that automatically calculates and adjusts exposure settings to match (as closely as possible) the subject's mid-tone to the mid-tone of the photograph. Automatic Gain Control    A circuit that automatically adjusts the gain of an amplifier based on the relative strength of the input signal. Used to maintain an even output when the audio signal is too low or the scene is poorly lighted. Automatic Iris    A mechanism coupled to the shutter release that controls the lens diaphragm. Automatic Level Control    Circuitry used to automatically adjust the audio recording level to compensate for variations in input volume. Automatic Slating    A camera attachment which records the film shot and take numbers and a visible sync mark which corresponds to a tone fed to an audio recorder. AV    Aperture priority AV-sync    The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech. AV1    AOMedia Video 1 Available Light    General, non-directional, room light not supplied on purpose by the photographer. AVB    Audio Video Bridging AVC-Intra    A type of video coding developed by Panasonic, and then supported in products made by other companies. AVC-Ultra    Defines an additional three new encoding parameters within the MPEG-4 Part 10 standard, utilizing up to the 4:4:4 Intra Predictive Profile, as well as an additional low bitrate proxy recording mode. AVCHD    Advanced Video Coding High Definition AVI    Audio Video Interleave Avid DNxHD    A lossy high-definition video post-production codec developed by Avid for multi-generation compositing with reduced storage and bandwidth requirements. Axial Cut    A type of jump cut, where the camera suddenly moves closer to or further away from its subject, along an invisible line drawn straight between the camera and the subject. Axial Lighting    The illumination of a subject from a source located close to the lens. Axis Lighting    The illumination of a subject from a source located close to the lens.
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B&W    Black and white B-mode Assembly    An automated, nonsequential method of editing a film. B-roll    Supplemental footage that can be used during production to inter-cut with, and supplement the main shot. Baby    Generally used to refer to a 1K light. Baby C-stand    A C-Clamp that is only 20 inches at its shortest height. Baby Legs    A short tripod. Back Focus    The distance between the rear glass surface of a lens and the focal plane, measured when the lens focuses on a very distant object. Background Actor    Accessory talent not essential to a production, assuming some peripheral on-camera role. Background Artist    The person who is involved in the process of animation who establishes the color, style, and mood of a scene drawn by an animation layout artist. Background Light    Light is used to illuminate the background area of a set. Background Noise    The total sound in a given area which is particular to that space. Background Story    A backstory is a set of events invented for a plot, presented as preceding and leading up to that plot. Backing Track    Prerecorded accompaniment for a singer or voiceover actor who then listens through headphones to a replay as he/she performs. Backlight    A light which is generally mounted behind a subject to light the subject's hair and shoulders without illuminating a subject's front. Back Projection    A technique where the actor stands in front of a screen and the background is projected onto the screen behind them. Backstory    A backstory is a set of events invented for a plot, presented as preceding and leading up to that plot. Baffle    A shield around the camera lens or microphone that filters out unwanted light or sound. Ballast    A component required by fluorescent and HID lighting fixtures. Ballast Factor    The ANSI ballast factor is used in North America to compare the light output (in lumens) of a lamp operated on a ballast compared to the lamp operating on an ANSI reference ballast. Ball Head    A ball head is a metal or plastic apparatus placed on top of a tripod to increase stability and to provide more accurate rotation of the camera. Balloon Light    Specialized types of luminaire used primarily for lighting in the motion picture industry, night highway construction, incident management, and public security applications such as police checkpoints. Banana Connector    A single-wire (one conductor) electrical connector used for joining wires to equipment. Band-pass Filter    A device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range. Band-stop Filter    A notch filter is a band-stop filter with a narrow stopband (high Q factor). Banding    A digital graphic artifact that results in a visible stepping of the shades in a gradient. Bandwidth    The maximum amount of bits/second that can travel along a network or channel. Most videos players will allow for automatic scaling a video stream to match the available bandwidth. Barndoors    Folding doors which are mounted on to the front of a light unit in order to control illumination. Barney    A sound-minimizing blanket placed over a camera to reduce the noise emitting from its moving mechanisms. Barrier    A first act obstacle in the way of a protagonist’s objective. Baseband    A signaling technique in which the signal is transmitted in its original form and not changed by modulation. Baud    A unit of signaling speed equal to the number of signal events per second. Baud is equivalent to bits per second in cases where each signal event represents exactly one bit. Bayonet Connector    A miniature quick connect/disconnect radio frequency connector used for coaxial cable. Bayonet Mount    A fastening mechanism that allows lenses to be changed rapidly and locked accurately in position. Bayonet Neill–Concelman    A miniature quick connect/disconnect radio frequency connector used for coaxial cable. BCD    Binary-coded decimal BD    Blu-ray Disc BDAV    Blu-ray Disc Audio-Video Beam Angle    Also known as beam spread, the beam angle is a value that describes the downward light cone emitted by a lighting fixture with a reflector. Beat (audio)    A periodic variation of amplitude resulting from the addition of two slightly different frequencies. Beat (screenplay)    The timing and movement of a film or play. Beatscript    Scripting aid used for describing story ideas. Bed    Background music used underneath a narrator or foreground dialog. Primarily applied to commercial radio or television spots. Beep    Short duration sound track tone aligned to a point on the film for precise reference in synchronization in the editing and printing processes. Behind-the-scenes    A documentary film that shows the production of a film. Bel    A measure of voltage, current, or power gain. One bel is defined as a tenfold increase in power. Belling-Lee Connector    A connector commonly used in Europe and Australia to connect coaxial cables with each other and with terrestrial VHF/UHF roof antennas, antenna signal amplifiers, CATV distribution equipment, TV sets, and FM and DAB radio receivers. Below The Line    Items in a budget that are assigned to the production crew. BER    Bit error rate BERT    Bit error rate test Best Boy    Assistants to their department heads, the gaffer (in charge of electricals) and the key grip (lighting and rigging), respectively. Best Light    A telecine transfer performed in one pass with one color correction setting applied to the whole reel, as opposed to precise scene-by-scene correction. BETA    Betamax Betacam    Portable, professional camera/recorder format developed by Sony. Betacam SP    An advanced version of Betacam that allows for longer recording and an increased number of audio channels. Betacam SX    A digital version of Betacam SP introduced in 1996, positioned as a cheaper alternative to Digital Betacam. Betamax    Betamax was the first home VCR format, developed by Sony. Bi-level Sync    A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video. Bi-Pin Base    A lamp base that uses two pins, as implied by its name. Biased Automatic Gain Control    An automatic gain control system that only operates when the signal exceeds a predetermined threshold. Bias Frame    An image obtained from an optoelectronic image sensor, with no actual exposure time. Bidirectional    Microphone pickup pattern whereby sound is absorbed equally from two sides only. Bidirectional Predicted Picture     B-frames can contain intra, predicted, or bi-predicted macroblocks. B‑frames can use both previous and forward frames for data reference to get the highest amount of data compression. BIFS    Binary format for scenes Bin    Originally a storage bin for editorial film reels but now commonly used to refer to hierarchical folders for storing clips in an editor.. Binary    A number expressed in the base-2 numeral system. Binary-coded Decimal    A coding system in which each decimal digit from 0 to 9 is represented by four binary (0 or 1) digits. Binary Format For Scenes    A binary format for two- or three-dimensional audiovisual content. Binary Image    An image that consists of pixels that can only have one of two colors, usually black and white. Binding Post    A connector commonly used on electronic test equipment to terminate (attach) a single wire or test lead. Bink Video    A proprietary file format (extensions .bik and .bk2) for video developed by RAD Game Tools. Bipack    The process of loading two reels of film into a camera, so that they both pass through the camera gate together. Birds-eye View    An elevated view of an object from above, with a perspective as though the observer were a bird, often used in the making of blueprints, floor plans, and maps. Bit    A basic unit of information. Refers to a binary digit (0 or 1) used to store or represent data. BIT    Bit Bit-rate Reduction    An encoding process that results in a decrease in the number of bits required to store data. Bit Blit    A computer operation programming that moves a graphic block of bits from one memory location to another. Bit Block Transfer    A computer operation programming that moves a graphic block of bits from one memory location to another. BitBLT    A computer operation programming that moves a graphic block of bits from one memory location to another. Bit Bucket    Any device capable of storing digital data--whether it be video, audio or other types of data. Bit Budget    The total amount of bits available on the media being used. BITC    Burn-in Time Code Bit Depth    The number of bits used to indicate the color of a given pixel. Bit Error Rate    In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors. Bit Error Rate Test    A testing method for digital communication circuits that uses predetermined stress patterns consisting of a sequence of logical ones and zeros generated by a test pattern generator. Bitmap    The 2-D array of pixels representing video and graphics. Bitmap Image File    A raster graphics image file format developed by Microsoft for the Windows and OS/2 operating systems. Bit Parallel    Transmission of digital video a byte at a time down a multi-conductor cable where each pair of wires carries a single bit. Bit Rate    The rate of binary digits flowing in a digital data-processing system. Bit rates are expressed as the number of bits per second (bps or Kbps) traveling through a digital stream. Bitrate Peeling    A technique used in Ogg Vorbis audio encoded streams, wherein a stream can be encoded at one bitrate but can be served at that or any lower bitrate. Bit Slippage    The loss or gain of a bit or bits, caused by clock drift – variations in the respective clock rates of the transmitting and receiving devices. Bits Per Channel    A unit of measure of the number of bits of information used to create each color pixel in an image. Bits Per Color    A unit of measure of the number of bits of information used to create each color pixel in an image. Bits Per Component    A unit of measure of the number of bits of information used to create each color pixel in an image. Bits Per Inch    Magnetic tape recording density.  Bits Per Pixel    A unit of measure of the number of bits of information used to create each color pixel in an image. Bitstream     A continuous series of bits transmitted on a line. Black And Burst    A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video. Black And Code    Tapes that have been pre-recorded with blank data (a black screen and timecode) before they are used. Black And White    Images that combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray. Black A Tape    A video signal with a blacked-out picture. Black Burst    A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video. Black Level    Video black level is defined as the level of brightness at the darkest (black) part of a visual image or the level of brightness at which no light is emitted from a screen, resulting in a pure black screen. Black Wrap    Black aluminum foil for wrapping lights and controlling spill. Blanking    A pause in an analog scan while the electron beam deflection circuitry is scanning back across the page. Blanking Level    The voltage level produced at the end of each horizontal picture line which separates the portion of the video signal containing the picture information from the portion containing the synchronizing information. Bleeding    Video image imperfection characterized by a blurring of color borders; colors spill over defined boundaries, "run" into neighboring areas. Blend Modes    Algorithms used to determine how two layers are blended with each other. Blimp    Housing for the camera or microphone intended to prevent sound equipment from picking up any extra sounds emitting from the camera. Blit    A computer operation programming that moves a graphic block of bits from one memory location to another. Block    The rectangular area of the picture, usually 8 x 8 pixels in size, which are individually subjected to DCT coding as part of a digital picture compression process. Blocking    Plotting the placement and movement of the actors, camera and microphone in a scene. Blu-ray Disc    A digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, and is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition (HDTV 720p and 1080p) and ultra high-definition resolution (2160p). Blu-ray Disc Audio-Video    A container file format used for multiplexing audio, video and other streams. Blue Screen    A compositing technique used for layering images or video streams based on matching hues. Blurb    A short promotional piece accompanying a piece of creative work such as films; usually consists of positive, colorful extracts from published reviews. BMP    BMP file format BMP File Format    A raster graphics image file format developed by Microsoft for the Windows and OS/2 operating systems. BNC    Bayonet Neill–Concelman Board    A device designed to keep track and synchronize the different scenes and takes in post-production. Board Reflector    A large white card made of foam or poster board used to reflect soft light. Bodypack    A backpack fitted with one or more pockets that are suspended on the wearer's chest and loaded in such a way that the load in the front and the load in the back are close to equal. Bokeh    The visual quality of the out-of-focus (blurred) areas of a photographic image. Bollywood    The Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). Book-ending    A framing device within which the main plotline is presented as being told or read to another, often embellished by the use of a voice-over narration throughout the film Bookends    A narrative technique that uses a recurrent element at the beginning and the end of the story. Boom    A telescoping arm for a camera or microphone. Booming    Camera move above or below subject with aid of a balanced "boom arm," creating a sense of floating into or out of a scene. Boom Microphone    A directional microphone mounted on a long pole or arm and positioned over the scene. Bootleg    An audio or video recording of a performance not officially released by the artist or under other legal authority. Border    The boundary between two merged video pictures, as created with chroma key or wipe effects. Bounce Board    A large white card made of foam or poster board used to reflect soft light. Boundary Microphone    A small omnidirectional condenser mic capsule positioned near or flush with a boundary. Bowdlerize    A form of censorship that involves purging anything deemed noxious or offensive from a film or other piece of material destined for publication. BPC    Bits per pixel BPF    Band-pass filter BPI    Bytes Per Inch Bracketing    The general technique of taking several shots of the same subject using different camera settings. Break-bumper    A brief announcement in a broadcast between a pause and a commercial break. Breakdown    A pre-production process where each scene is isolated into its component elements such as props, costumes, and actors. Breathing    The shifting of angle of view of a lens when changing the focus. B Reel    Supplemental footage that can be used during production to inter-cut with, and supplement the main shot. Brickwall Effect    The abrupt interruption of a digital stream that occurs when the receiver can no longer process the incoming signal due to quality or strength issues. Bridge Camera    Cameras that fill the niche between the single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs) and the point-and-shoot camera which are prominent in the prosumer market segment. Bridging Shot    An intermediate sequence used to establish a visual connection between two otherwise disconnected scenes in a story Bright Dot Defect    A defective pixel resulting from a group of sub-pixel transistors being either "off" or stuck "on." Brightness    The perceived amount of light coming from a given source. Broad    A rectangular open-faced light which is used for general fill or for cyc illumination. Broadband    A wide bandwidth channel which transports multiple signals and traffic types. Broadband can refer to media such coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network    An end-to-end circuit-switched service. Broadcast Delay     Broadcast Designer    A person involved with creating graphic designs and electronic media incorporated in television productions that are used by character generator (CG) operators. Broadcast FTP Protocol    A simple, robust, one-way resource transfer protocol that is designed to efficiently deliver data in a one-way broadcast-only environment. Broadcast Wave Format    An audio file format based on Microsoft's WAV. Brute    A brute arc light, usually 225 amps DC powered. B Story    A secondary strand of the plot that is a supporting side story for any story or the main plot. BT.656    A simple digital video protocol for streaming uncompressed PAL or NTSC Standard Definition TV (525 or 625 lines) signals. BT.709    A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. BT.2020    Standard defining various values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international program exchange. BT.2100    The ITU-R Recommendation that defines the parameters of high-dynamic-range television. BTS    Making-of Buddy Film    A film genre in which two people—often both men—are put together and on an adventure, a quest, or a road trip. Buffer Shot    A shot inserted as a bridge to disguise a mistake or a cut. Buffer Underflow    A state occurring when a buffer used to communicate between two devices or processes is fed with data at a lower speed than the data is being read from it. Buffer Underrun    A state occurring when a buffer used to communicate between two devices or processes is fed with data at a lower speed than the data is being read from it. BUG    Digital on-screen graphic Bullet     A standard wooden clothespin that is used to attach gels to barn doors and other hot items. Bullet Time    A visual effect of detaching the time and space of a camera from those of its visible subject. BUMP    Ident bumper Bumper    A brief announcement in a broadcast between a pause and a commercial break. Burn-in Time Code    A videotape in which a "window" displaying the time code count on the tape is superimposed over part of the picture. Burst Error    Consecutive Block Errors. Burst Errors are usually the result of fingerprints, contamination, scratches, or voids, etc. Bus    A mixing network that combines the output of two or more channels. Butterfly    Structures on which materials are mounted so as to control lighting in a scene or photograph. Buy Out    Music or music libraries in which a one-time fee enables the buyer to legally use the music in many productions without paying additional licensing or "needle drop" fees. Buzz Track    A soundtrack made of natural or otherwise atmospheric noise added to a scene to create a realistic aural environment.  BWF    Broadcast Wave Format Byte    A unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Bytes Per Inch    Magnetic tape recording density.  B‑frame     B-frames can contain intra, predicted, or bi-predicted macroblocks. B‑frames can use both previous and forward frames for data reference to get the highest amount of data compression. B‑frames    In the field of video compression, a video frame is compressed using different algorithms with different advantages and disadvantages, centered mainly around the amount of data compression.
C
  Chrominance C-Clamp    A clamp for attaching a large piece of hardware to a pipe or batten. C-LINK    Channel-Link C-stand     A stand used to position light modifiers in front of light sources. C47     A standard wooden clothespin that is used to attach gels to barn doors and other hot items. CA    Chromatic aberration Cable Box    A device that is connected to a television so that it can receive digital signals. CableCARD     A PCMCIA card that allows U.S. cable customers to consume digital television channels on electronic devices not supplied by the service vendor. Cable Television    A video distribution system geared toward consumers that deliver television programming via a coaxial (or fiber-optic) cable. Cache    An intermediate local or temporary storage used to store data for faster access. Callier Effect    The variation in contrast of images produced by different forms of illumination on photographic film. Call Sheet    On a movie set, a list of tasks for a day, typically crafted by the assistant director. Camcorder    A small video camera that records video onto a storage device. Camel-hair Brush     A paintbrush with soft bristles used to clean lenses. CAMEO    Cameo appearance Cameo Appearance    A brief appearance or voice part of a well-known person in a work of the performing arts. Cameo Lighting    A spotlight that highlights a single person or a few props in a scene. Camera Angle    The specific location at which a movie camera is placed to take a shot. Camera Blocking    The process of rotating the position of the camera(s) and adjusting the lens size and focus during a particular scene. Camera Control Unit    A device that sits between the camera and the recording unit in a live broadcast chain to remotely control the output of the former. Camera Coverage    In video and filmmaking, the amount and kind of footage necessary to capture and portray a scene. Camera Cue    A small signal lamp located just above the camera lens or on the electronic viewfinder to indicate that the signal is live. Camera Dial    A rotary control dial used on a digital camera to change its settings or modes. Camera Dolly    A wheeled cart that allows a camera operator to smoothly pull or push a camera while traveling on a smooth surface. Camera Jib    A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other. Camera Link    A serial communication protocol designed to interface cameras with Channel-link applications. Camera Log    A detailed description of all the shots that will be part of a scene, a film, or a video. Cameraman    The professional operator of a film or video camera who is part of a film, video, or television production crew. Camera Operator    The professional operator of a film or video camera who is part of a film, video, or television production crew. Camerawoman    The professional operator of a film or video camera who is part of a film, video, or television production crew. Camlock    An interchangeable single-pole electrical connector. Candela    The base unit of luminous intensity measurement in the International System of Units (SI). Candlepower    A measurement of luminous intensity, similar to how we use the word candela today. Cannon    A circular connector used in professional audio, video, and stage lighting equipment. Canon EF-M Lens Mount    One of Canon's two lens-mounting systems for mirrorless cameras, the other being the RF mount. Cans    A slang term for the headphones worn by on- and off-air personalities. Canted Angle    A type of shot that produces a viewpoint akin to tilting one's head to the side. Canted Frame    A type of shot that produces a viewpoint akin to tilting one's head to the side. Capacitance    A measure of the ability of a component to hold an electrical charge. Capacitance Electronic Disc    A 12-inch plastic disc, with data recorded in pits at the bottom of the grooves and read by an electronic stylus created in 1964 by RCA. Capacitor Microphone    Microphone where the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, and the air vibrations change the distance between the plates. Capstan    A rotating device that spins tape in order to move it through the mechanism of a tape recorder. Caption    The synchronized display of the text of a translation or transcription of the dialogue at the bottom of the screen during the scenes when sound is available but not understood. Captioning    The synchronized display of the text of a translation or transcription of the dialogue or audio track at the bottom of the screen during the scenes when sound is unavailable or not clearly audible. Cardioid Microphone    A microphone that is sensitive to sound coming directly at it and relatively insensitive to sound coming from other directions. Carrier-to-noise Ratio    The signal-to-noise ratio of a signal after modulation. Cascaded Integrator–comb Filter    A class of FIR filtering that is combined with a decimator or interpolator. Cassette    A cartridge containing a permanently encased videotape that winds and rewinds from reel-to-reel. Catalyst    A character, event, or set of circumstances that motivate or otherwise cause a protagonist to take action, start a quest or a journey. Catharsis    In scriptwriting, the act of reliving a past experience through storytelling so that the audience can better understand the feelings and emotions involved. Cathode-ray Tube    An electronic vacuum tube used to display images on a phosphorescent screen. CATV    Cable television Causal Prediction    The expected outcome of a scene or plot based on the audience's unconscious ability to predict what is going to happen later in a story. Cause And Effect    A classic movie scriptwriting technique where a linear sequence of events logically progresses from one to the other, with a prior action causing a later one. CAV    Component video Cave Effect    A visual effect that occurs when all the lighting sources in a scene direct downward, with no light reflecting upward. CBHD    China Blue High-definition Disc CBR    Constant bitrate CC    Closed caption CCD    Charge-coupled device CC Filter    A photographic filter that enables fine adjustments to the color balance, tone, or density of the final print. CCFL    Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp CCI    Co-channel interference CCIR    Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommunications CCIR System A    The 405-line analog television display standard used in the UK and Ireland until it was discontinued in 1985. CCIR System B    The 625-line analog broadcast standard for the VHF band television system used in most countries. CCIR System G    The 625-line analog television display standard used in the European UHF system, as well as the majority of Asian and African countries. CCIR System H    The 625-line analog television display standard used on the UHF bands in Belgium, the Balkans, and Malta. CCIR System I    A 625-line analog broadcast television system first used in the Republic of Ireland starting in 1962. CCIR System J    The 525-line analog television and video display standard used in Japan until 2011. CCIR System M    The 525-line analog broadcast television system used since July 1941 in the United States, most of the Americas, Caribbeans, South Korea, and Taiwan. C Connector    A common type of connector used for terminating a coaxial cable. CCT    Correlated Color Temperature CCTV    Closed-circuit television CCU    Camera control unit CD    Candela CD-I    Compact Disc-Interactive CD-ROM    Compact disc read-only memory CDDA    Compact Disc Digital Audio CDDI    Copper distributed data interface CDM    Content Decryption Module CDS    Cinema Digital Sound CDV    Compact Disc Video CD Video    A format that combines the technologies of compact optical disc and LaserDisc for video. CE-HTML    A special version of HTML for remote-controlled consumer electronic devices. CEA-608    A standard for closed captioning NTSC TV broadcasts in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. CED    Capacitance electronic disc Cel    A separate piece of artwork drawn on a transparent sheet used to create a scene. Celluloid    A plastic-like material used to make photographic and motion picture film until the late 1950s; alternatively, the genre of cinema made during that period. Cellulose Acetate Film    A plastic film used for photographic emulsions. Century Stand     A stand used to position light modifiers in front of light sources. Ceramic Microphone    A type of microphone that detects sound through physical contact. CF    Conversion factor CFF    Critical flicker fusion frequency CG    Character generator CGA    Color Graphics Adapter CGI    Computer Generated Imagery Changeover Cue    A visual indicator located on the upper right-hand corner of a film frame, telling the projectionist to change the reel. Channel    A grayscale image or frame representing one of the primary colors that combine to make up the color version. Channel-Link    A high-speed interface for transferring data at high-speed rates over backplanes or cables. Channel Coding    A transmission scheme that uses redundant data to provide error detection, correction, and retransmission of packets that fail to arrive at the receiver. Character    In a story: a person that drives a part of the narrative. Character Arc    The arc-like shaping of the story through a gradual transformation of the character's life or inner journey. Character Development    The arc-like shaping of the story through a gradual transformation of the character's life or inner journey. Character Generator    A device that produces static or animated streams of letters, numbers, symbol that gets keyed into a video stream. Characterization    The representation of people or other active beings in stories. Charge-coupled Device    An integrated circuit that converts light into electrical charges. Charge-coupled Image Sensor    A CCD in which charges are introduced when light from a scene is focused on the surface of the device. Cheater Cord    A special extension cord used to apply AC power to older electronic devices while the back cover with its protective power interlock is removed. Cheater Cut    Introductory footage showed at the beginning of an episode part of a series as an overview or recap of what happened in the previous episode. Cheat Shot    A shot inserted as a bridge to disguise a mistake or a cut. Chebyshev Filter    A filter that minimizes the error between the idealized and the actual filter characteristic over the range of the filter, but with ripples in the passband. Checkerboard Assembly    An automated, nonsequential method of editing a film. Checksum    A small numerical value used to detect data integrity errors. Chemical Fog    In analog photography, a fog-like artifact appearing during the development of a film on parts of the photo that were not exposed to light. Chiaroscuro    Extremely low-key and high-contrast lighting used to create distinct areas of light and darkness in films. China Blue High-definition Disc    A high-definition optical disc format produced to rival the Blu-ray format in the Chinese market. China Girl    An image of a woman accompanied by color bars that appears for a few frames in the reel leader of a film. Chroma    A measurement of the quality of the light obtained by comparing the hue, saturation, and luminance of a given color to a reference color source. Chroma Burst    A generated analog or composite video signal designed to keep the chrominance subcarrier synchronized in a television signal. Chroma Corrector    A device or circuit in a video camera that automatically corrects chroma, color balance, and color noise problems in the signal. Chroma Crawl    An artifact that occurs when the brightness information from the luma channel is incorrectly interpreted and applied to the YUV color space. Chromakey    A compositing technique used for layering images or video streams based on matching hues. Chroma Key    A compositing technique used for layering images or video streams based on matching hues. Chroma Noise    Image noise that displays as colored pixels; also known as colored snow. Chroma Subsampling    A color video encoding and compression technique that favors luminance over color information. Chromatic Aberration    Visual inconsistencies that occur when the camera lens fails to focus all colors to the same point. Chromatic Distortion    Visual inconsistencies that occur when the camera lens fails to focus all colors to the same point. Chromaticity    Measurement of color quality expressed by the combination of hue and saturation. Chrominance    A measurement of the quality of the light obtained by comparing the hue, saturation, and luminance of a given color to a reference color source. Chrominance Noise    Image noise that displays as colored pixels; also known as colored snow. Chrominance Subcarrier    A signal broadcasted added to the black and white television signal that adds color information. Chromium Dioxide    An inorganic compound used in the manufacturing of magnetic tape emulsion. Chromostereopsis    An application of chromostereopsis and a component of 3D TV technology. Chromostereoscopy    An application of chromostereopsis and a component of 3D TV technology. Chronophotography    An antique photographic technique that uses a series of photographs of a moving object for the purpose of displaying successive phases of the motion. Chyron    A partial overlay of a video stream that combines text and graphic elements to provide the viewer with contextual information. CIC    Cascaded integrator–comb filter CIE    CIE 1931 CIE 1931    The international authority on light, illumination, color, and color spaces. CIELAB    A color space where equal distances represent the threshold of perceived color differences of equal size. CIEXYZ    The international authority on light, illumination, color, and color spaces. CIE XYZ Color Space    A color space based on the results of the CIE RGB version of the human eye. CIF    Common Intermediate Format Cinch Marks    Scratches on a film roll running parallel to the film's edge. CineAlta    The name of a series of professional digital movie cameras produced by Sony. CineForm    An open-source, 12-bit, full-frame wavelet compression video codec published by GoPro. Cinema Digital Sound    A multi-channel surround sound format used for theatrical films in the early 1990s. CinemaDNG    A standard format for storing high-resolution video streams in raw format. Cinemascope    A system of anamorphic lenses and widescreen (2.35:1) projection. Cinematic Language    Reference to the combination of elements that make up the mode of communication between a film and its audience. Cinematograph    The name of the original movie camera; a device that also served as a film projector and a printer. Cinematographer    The person responsible for the camera and the lighting work during the production of a film or video. Cineon    An integrated suite of components made by Kodak meant for compositing, visual effects, image restoration, and color management. Cinepak    A lossy video codec. Cinerama    The brand name of an early widescreen projection process. Circle-in    Starting a scene with an opening circle that comes in from the edges of the screen. Circle-out    Ending a scene with a closing circle that comes in from the edges of the screen. Circuit Breaker    A switch mechanism designed to protect a circuit from electrical hazards. Clacker    A device designed to keep track and synchronize the different scenes and takes in post-production. Clair-obscur    Extremely low-key and high-contrast lighting used to create distinct areas of light and darkness in films. Clamper    An electronic circuit that resolves the positive or negative extreme values of a signal to a defined value, keeping the whole signal at a stable DC level. Clamping Circuit    An electronic circuit that resolves the positive or negative extreme values of a signal to a defined value, keeping the whole signal at a stable DC level. Clap    An audio signal that marks the start of a scene in a film or video. Clapboard    A device designed to keep track and synchronize the different scenes and takes in post-production. Clapper    A device designed to keep track and synchronize the different scenes and takes in post-production. Clapperboard    A device designed to keep track and synchronize the different scenes and takes in post-production. Clay Animation    A stop-motion animation created using clay. Claymation    A stop-motion animation created using clay. Click And Drag    The part of the user interface that allows for virtual objects to be moved to a different location using the mouse pointer. Click Track    A track on the recording medium that contains a series of repetitive visual or audio cues used to synchronize sound and images in a video. Cliff Effect    The abrupt interruption of a digital stream that occurs when the receiver can no longer process the incoming signal due to quality or strength issues. Cliffhanger    A plot device that hooks the viewer's attention. Climax    A critical point in a story where both tension and drama are likely to be at their highest levels. Clinching    The video slippage that sometimes results from a loosely wound spool of tape in a VCR. Clip    A short segment of electronic audio or video media often sampled from a larger recording. Clip Bin    A list of the locations of individual audio and video clips (or scenes) to be used as a reference during editing. Clipped Highlights    The loss of details due to the luminance signal resulting from overexposure being cut off by the video system in order to prevent exceeding its limits. Clipped Whites    The loss of details due to the luminance signal resulting from overexposure being cut off by the video system in order to prevent exceeding its limits. Clipper    A signal processing circuit that attenuates the peaks of those that exceed a given threshold. Clipping    The distortion of an audio or video signal that results from the limiting of a signal that exceeds a given threshold. Clip Sheet    A list of the locations of individual audio and video clips (or scenes) to be used as a reference during editing. Clock Frequency    A built-in timing mechanism that produces pulses and allows different computer components to coordinate their operations. Clock Jitter    The deviation between the actual timing of a signal and its expected or ideal values. Clock Phase Deviation    A measure of the difference in timing between two clocks used in a computer or digital electronic system that is operating synchronously. Clock Rate    A built-in timing mechanism that produces pulses and allows different computer components to coordinate their operations. Clock Recovery    The circuitry or process that extracts the clocking information from serial data streams. Clock Skew    A measure of the difference in timing between two clocks used in a computer or digital electronic system that is operating synchronously. Clock Speed    A built-in timing mechanism that produces pulses and allows different computer components to coordinate their operations. Clock Wipe    A transition used to progressively reveal the subsequent shot in a way that resembles the swiping of hands around the clock. Clone    A program or system designed to function the same way as another. Close-up    A video or still shot of a subject taken at a relatively close range. Close-up Filter    A secondary lens used to enable macro photography without requiring a specialized primary lens. Close-up Lens    A secondary lens used to enable macro photography without requiring a specialized primary lens. Closed-circuit Television    Video systems that distribute television signals to a limited number of screens. Closed Caption    Video subtitles that display in words or symbols all the significant audio content to the viewer. Closed Captioning    The synchronized display of the text of a translation or transcription of the dialogue or audio track at the bottom of the screen during the scenes when sound is unavailable or not clearly audible. Closing Credits    A list of the production personnel (actors, cast, and crew) displayed at the tail end of a movie, video stream, or similar media.  CLUT    Palette CLV    Constant Linear Velocity CMOS    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor C Mount    A standard threaded, male-to-female mount interface for small camera lenses. CNR    Carrier-to-noise ratio Co-channel Interference    Crosstalk resulting from two different transmitters using the same channel. Co-site Sampling    A photographic technique that combines multiple images into one to deliver improved color information. Coating    A type of optical coating applied to the surface of lenses and other optical elements to reduce reflection. COAX    Coaxial cable Coaxial Cable    A common type of electrical cable used primarily to transport data, video, and voice. CoaXPress    A digital interface standard for high-speed data transmission (up to 12.5 Gbit/s). Codec    A device or software designed for converting and compressing digital audio and video streams for enhanced storage capability or compatibility. Coded Image    A version of an image in digital (coded) format. Coded Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing    A form of modulation designed for the fast wireless transmission of signals between compatible devices. Coefficient Of Utilization    A measure of the efficiency of a light source in transferring energy to the working plane. COFDM    Coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing Coincidence    An optical device that measures the distance to a visible object. Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp    A fluorescent lamp operated by a cathode that is not heated by a filament. Cold Color    A pale color, often with a blue, green, or indigo tint. Cold Open    A narrative tactic where the video starts by jumping directly into a story, before any title sequence or opening credits is displayed. Cold Shoe    A mounting point without electrical contacts on the top of a camera used to attach an accessory. Collaborative Real-time Editor    Software that lets multiple people work together on software, code, and/or video in a shared virtual environment. Collimated    A beam of light where the rays stay parallel. Collimation    The process of aligning all the optical elements of an instrument or device on their designed axis. Color-crawl    An unwanted artifact created by the interference between a pattern on the object and the shape of the light sensors on the imaging device. Color-Timed Master    A fully color-graded version of the movie that uses the high-resolution source footage. Color Balance    The process of capturing the correct colors for the type of available light. Color Banding    A digital graphic artifact that results in a visible stepping of the shades in a gradient. Color Bars    A television test pattern used to configure monitors to the NTSC standard. Color Bay    The name of the control room used for color grading video. Colorburst    A generated analog or composite video signal designed to keep the chrominance subcarrier synchronized in a television signal. Color Cast    An unwanted tint of a particular color that evenly affects a photographic image. Color Center    The region in the brain responsible for the perception and processing of color signals. Color Clash    The outcome of one color being affected by the presence of another in close proximity. Color Compensating Filter    A photographic filter that enables fine adjustments to the color balance, tone, or density of the final print. Color Contamination    The outcome of one color being affected by the presence of another in close proximity. Color Control Unit    A device that sits between the camera and the recording unit in a live broadcast chain to remotely control the output of the former. Color Conversion Filter    A photographic filter that enables fine adjustments to the color balance, tone, or density of the final print. Color Correction    Any process that uses gels, filters, or digital tools to alter the color of the light in a scene. Color Correction Bay    The name of the control room used for color grading video. Color Correction Matrix    A file that characterizes a color input, output device, or color space. Color Cycling    A computer graphic technique used to simulate animation on an image. Color Decoder    A device that divides an analog video signal into its basic digital color components. Color Depth    The number of bits used to indicate the color of a given pixel. Color Difference Set    An interim color space standard used during the early days of HDTV (1988-1998). Color Difference Signals    In analog television, the video signals obtained by subtraction of the luminance value from the primary color signals. Color Encoder    A device that produces a color signal from separate R, G, and B video inputs. Color Encoding    The process of encoding and transforming the R, G, and B inputs into a signal. Color Filter    A transparent colored material used to color light and for color correction. Color Framing    The color sequence used for the frame timing in a composite video signal. Color Fringing    Visual inconsistencies that occur when the camera lens fails to focus all colors to the same point. Colorfulness    An informal measure of the degree of perceived chromatic intensity relative to a corresponding black, white, or grey image or object. Color Gel    A transparent colored material used to color light and for color correction. Color Grading    The process of ensuring that an image or video will look good in any environment and on every device. Color Graphics Adapter    IBM's first graphics card and first color display card for the IBM PC: 640×200, 16 colors. Colorimeter    A device used to profile and calibrate output devices by measuring color differences. Colorimetry    The science and technology used to quantify and describe human color perception. Color Intensity    The saturation of a color; a measurement of how close a color is to gray. Colorist    The person responsible for the color grading and color adjustments of/to a film or video in post-production. Colorization    A process that adds plausible color to black-and-white, sepia, or other monochrome moving-picture images. Colorizer    A person responsible for the film colorization process. Color Look-up Table    A finite set of colors in no particular order. Color Magazine    A fixture used in active stage and scene lighting that attaches to a follow spot and places different color filters in the path of the beam. Color Model    An abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers. Color Modulator    A device that produces a color signal from separate R, G, and B video inputs. Color Phase    The phase of the chroma signal relative to the color burst. Color Processing    The process of ensuring that an image or video will look good in any environment and on every device. Color Quantization    A process that reduces the number of distinct colors used in an image without affecting its visual qualities. Color Rendering Index    A measure of the ability of a light source to accurately reveal the colors of the objects placed in front of it, Color Response    A reference to the sensitivity of sensors to different wavelengths of light. Color Sampling Rate    A color video encoding and compression technique that favors luminance over color information. Color Separation Overlay    A compositing technique used for layering images or video streams based on matching hues. Color Shift    A measure of the variation in color rendition between two images. Color Shift Keying    An intensity modulation-based modulation scheme for VLC. Color Space    A named mathematical model of a pre-defined range of colors. Color Space Converter    A piece of software or circuitry that converts between different color spaces. Color Striping    An anti-copying technology that prevents copying of video from videodiscs or pay-per-view cable broadcasts to VHS or DVD by filling the image with rotating color bands. Color Subcarrier    A signal broadcasted added to the black and white television signal that adds color information. Color Subsampling    A color video encoding and compression technique that favors luminance over color information. Color Suite    The name of the control room used for color grading video. Color Temperature    A measure of the color of light, expressed in Kelvins and qualified from warm (yellow/red) to cool (blue/white). Color Timing    The process of ensuring that an image or video will look good in any environment and on every device. Color Triangle    A method of representing colors as points within a triangle used in colorimetry. Color Vectorscope    A type of oscilloscope used to measure a video signal's chrominance performance. Color Zero    The transparent color n the Amiga color palette. Coma    An optical aberration in an optical system where the object appears to have a comet-like tail. Comatic Aberration    An optical aberration in an optical system where the object appears to have a comet-like tail. Comb Filter    A signal-processing filter that results in constructive and destructive interference by adding a delayed version of the signal to itself. Comet Tailing    An unwanted smear of light caused by the inability of the camera to process bright objects in darker settings. Comité Consultatif International Des Radiocommunications    An international standards committee, now known as ITU-R. Commentary    Voice-over audio relating an opinion or a description from an off-camera commentator. Commercial Bumper    A brief announcement in a broadcast between a pause and a commercial break. Common Image Format    A format standard for the resolution, frame rate, color space, and color subsampling of video sequences in teleconferencing systems. Common Interchange Format    A format standard for the resolution, frame rate, color space, and color subsampling of video sequences in teleconferencing systems. Common Interface Format    A format standard for the resolution, frame rate, color space, and color subsampling of video sequences in teleconferencing systems. Common Intermediate Format    A format standard for the resolution, frame rate, color space, and color subsampling of video sequences in teleconferencing systems. Communication Protocol    A set of rules that allow two or more devices to exchange information. Compact Disc    The data storage format for digital optical discs. Compact Disc-Interactive    An obsolete storage format combining audio, text, and graphics. Compact Disc Digital Audio    The format standard for audio compact discs (CDs) Compact Disc Digital Video    A format for video storage and playback on a standard compact disc.  Compact Disc Read-only Memory    A pre-pressed compact disc that contains data. Compact Disc Video    A format that combines the technologies of compact optical disc and LaserDisc for video. Compact Video Cassette    A variant of the VHS format. Complementary Colors    Pairs of colors that cancel each other and produce a grayscale color when combined or mixed. Complementary Metal-oxide-semiconductor    A manufacturing technology used for constructing image sensors for cameras. Completion Bond    An insurance policy used in independently financed films or video projects. Completion Guarantee    An insurance policy used in independently financed films or video projects. Component Switcher    A device that switches between multiple component video inputs to multiple display devices with compatible outputs. Component Video    A video signal that has been split into two or more (typically 3) component channels. Component Video Sync    An analog signal consisting of horizontal, vertical, and equalizing synchronization pulses. Composite Character    A character in a script based on the combined attributes of two or more individuals. Composite Monitor    A video display that only accepts input from a composite video signal. Composite Print    A physical copy of a film that combines synchronized sound and picture. Composite Sync    An analog signal consisting of horizontal, vertical, and equalizing synchronization pulses. Composite Video    An analog, standard definition transmission carrier of video over a single channel. Compositing    The process of combining visual elements from separate sources into single images. Composition    The arrangement of visual elements in a frame, as distinct from the subject. Compositor    The person responsible for creating visual special effects through compositing. Compression    An encoding process that results in a decrease in the number of bits required to store data. Compression Artefact    A distortion of the media caused by the use of lossy compression. Compression Artifact    A distortion of the media caused by the use of lossy compression. Compression Power    A measure of the relative reduction in the size of the data produced by a compression algorithm: the result of dividing the uncompressed size by the compressed size. Compression Ratio    A measure of the relative reduction in the size of the data produced by a compression algorithm: the result of dividing the uncompressed size by the compressed size. Computer Generated Imagery    The process of generating and seamlessly integrating visual elements generated by a computer into an existing scene. Concatenation    The linking of elements (clips, tracks, words, etc.) together without gaps. Concave    A lens configuration with an inward curve. Concept Art    Illustrations used to visualize assets before they are used in the final video or medium. Condenser Lens    An optical lens that converges a divergent beam into a parallel beam to illuminate an object. Condenser Microphone    Microphone where the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, and the air vibrations change the distance between the plates. Conditional Access    The restriction of television and streaming media content to viewers that meet pre-established criteria. Confidant    In a story, a character whom a protagonist trusts and confides secrets to. Conflict    A challenge the main characters in a story need to solve to achieve their goals. Conforming    The process of editing an audio or video project to create the final master. Constant-Minimum Wavelength-Constant Angular Velocity    A proprietary technology that allowed a 30-cm disc to store 23 Gbytes of data. Constant Angular Velocity    One of the two ways to calculate the speed of rotation of an optical disc. Constant Bitrate    A property of a codec's output. Constant Linear Velocity    A qualifier for the rated speed of an optical disc drive. Contact Microphone    A type of microphone that detects sound through physical contact. Content Decryption Module    A module that implements Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) in web browsers. Contingency    The budgeted amount of money that is set aside to cover unforeseen production costs. Continuity    The coherence of people, storylines, objects, and places over the timeline defined in the script. Continuity Editing    The organization and sequencing of events, characters, and props to ensure a consistent representation of the progress of time. Continuity Report    A list of all occurrences during the shooting of a scene. Continuous Action    In scriptwriting: the progress of action through multiple locations without interruptions. Continuous Film Scanner    A device that converts film into a high-resolution digital file. Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation    A technique for converting an analog voice signal into a serial bitstream. Continuous Motion    A smooth moving image. Continuous Presence    A feature of video conferencing systems that allows all participants to be visible on the screen at the same time. Contouring    A video artifact caused by excessive quantization during the compression process. Contrapuntal Sound    Audio that contrasts with the visuals in order to make a point. Contrast    The difference in color or luminance intensity that allows objects in an image to be distinguishable. Contrast Cut    A transition between two sequences that juxtaposes and contrasts subjects in order to create a high visual and/or auditory impact. Contrast Ratio    A measure of the difference between the luminance of the brightest and darkest colors that a display system is capable of producing. Contrast Resolution    The number of gray levels at each pixel in a digital image. Contrazoom    An in-camera effect that keeps the focus on a single point while zooming one way and dollying the other way. Control-L    A control protocol allowing two-way communication between cameras and similar devices. Control Signal    A special signal recorded onto the videotape at the same time a video signal is being recorded. Control Track    In an analog videotape, a track that runs along an outside edge of the tape to keep the speed in sync with the recording. Convergence    A measure of how closely the red, green, and blue guns inside a computer monitor track each other as they draw color. Convergence Alignment    A process that aligns or overlaps the three primary colors of TV to form a perfect image. Converging Meniscus    A lens configuration. Conversion Factor    The ratio between a digital video and its normalized representation. Convex    A camera lens configuration in which the lens element has an outward curve. Cookie    A device placed between the light source and the subject used to cast shadows or silhouettes and produce a patterned illumination. Cool Color    A pale color, often with a blue, green, or indigo tint. Cool White    A light source with a correlated color temperature of between 4100K and 5000K. Copper Distributed Data Interface    A high-speed data interface similar to Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) but using copper cables instead of fiber optic cables. Cordless Microphone    A microphone that uses a small radio transmitter to transmit the audio signal to the receiver. Core    A cylinder of glass or plastic that runs along the optical fiber's length. Core Audio    A low-level sound API tightly integrated into Apple's macOS and iOS operating systems. Correlated Color Temperature    A measure, expressed in Kelvin degrees, of how yellow or blue the light emitted by a source will appear. Correlator Filter    An audio filter used with certain noise reduction systems to separate and cut out noise from overtones. Coupler    A tool that accepts multiple inputs and outputs them in a single source. Coverage    In video and filmmaking, the amount and kind of footage necessary to capture and portray a scene. Covering Power    A reference to the ability of a camera lens to capture clear images over the entire frame. Cover Shot    An establishing shot that begins a sequence with a wide or long-distance view of the action and its location. CP    Candlepower Crab    The process of locating a moving object (or multiple objects) over time using a camera. Crane Shot    A shot taken by a camera mounted on a moving crane or jib to give the viewer a unique and dynamic perspective on a scene. Crash Editing    A simple tape-based editing technique that consists of adding one segment of recorded programming after another, from one tape onto another. Crawl    Text or graphics typically used for special announcements and produced by a character generator. Crawling Dot Pattern    An unwanted artifact created by the interference between a pattern on the object and the shape of the light sensors on the imaging device. Crawl Roll    Text or graphics typically used for special announcements and produced by a character generator. Crawl Space    The area where the crawl roll is displayed on the screen. CRC    Cyclic redundancy check Creative Geography    A filmmaking technique, subset of montage, in which multiple segments shot at various locations and/or times are edited together such that they appear to all occur in a continuous place at a continuous-time. Credit    A written or verbal acknowledgment of the author(s) or copyright holder(s) of a contribution. Credits    Text that provides attribution to the staff involved in the production of the video. Creepy-crawlies    The nickname of video image artifacts native to the NTSC television system. Creepy Peepy    A small portable TV camera, or minicam, used to take close-up, often candid shots outside the studio. Crest Factor    In a lamp ballast, the ratio of the maximum lamp current relative to the average operating current. Crew    The group of people hired to work behind the camera(s) on the production of a film or video. CRI    Color Rendering Index Crimping    A method of attaching cables together by deforming either or both's ends. Crispening    A processing filter that enhances the edge contrast of an image or video in an attempt to improve its apparent sharpness. Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency    The frequency at which an intermittent light stimulus appears to be completely steady to the average human observer. Critical Focus    The portion of the picture that is optically in focus. Critical Fusion Frequency    The frequency at which an intermittent light stimulus appears to be completely steady to the average human observer. CRO2    Chromium dioxide Crop Factor    The ratio of the dimensions of a camera's imaging area compared to a reference format -- typically: the 35 mm film format. Cropping    The removal of unwanted areas from a video or still image. Cross-channel Fade    The gradual mix of sound sources through the manipulation of two or more mix console faders simultaneously. Cross-conversion    The process of converting from one high definition video standard to another. Cross-cutting    A technique used in movies to establish action happening at the same time. Cross-fade    The gradual mix of sound sources through the manipulation of two or more mix console faders simultaneously. Cross-luminance    An artifact that occurs when the brightness information from the luma channel is incorrectly interpreted and applied to the YUV color space. Cross-pulse Generator    A circuit that can be used for shifting the picture on a TV screen so that the horizontal and vertical pulses can be seen on the monitor. Cross Backlight    Light placed behind the subject to create a glamorous halo effect on the hair or a rugged-looking highlight on the cheek. Helps separate the subject from the background. Cross Cut    A technique used in movies to establish action happening at the same time. Cross Dissolve    A video transition that fades the end of the preceding clip into the beginning of the next. Crossfade    The gradual mix of sound sources through the manipulation of two or more mix console faders simultaneously. Cross Luma Dot Crawl    An artifact that occurs when the brightness information from the luma channel is incorrectly interpreted and applied to the YUV color space. Cross Modulation    A condition that occurs when one signal modulates another. Cross Screen Filter    A physical or digital light filter that creates a star-like visual effect out of a light source. Crosstalk    The bleeding of a signal (expressed in dB) from one audio or electrical channel to another. Crossview    The reception of an unwanted picture on a vision circuit. CRT    Cathode-ray tube Crushed Blacks    Reduced detail in the shadow areas of an image caused by under-exposing the image. CSK    Color Shift Keying C Story    A secondary strand of the plot that is a supporting side story for any story or the main plot. CTM    Color-Timed Master CU    Close-up Cucoloris    A device placed between the light source and the subject used to cast shadows or silhouettes and produce a patterned illumination. Cue    A marker used to determine the desired initial playback point of a piece of digital media in a queue. Cue Blip    A visual indicator located on the upper right-hand corner of a film frame, telling the projectionist to change the reel. Cue Card    An off-screen card with text lines that are designed to help an actor, speaker, or character to recall spoken lines. Cue Dot    A visual indicator located on the upper right-hand corner of a film frame, telling the projectionist to change the reel. Cue Light    A small signal lamp located just above the camera lens or on the electronic viewfinder to indicate that the signal is live. Cue Mark    A visual indicator located on the upper right-hand corner of a film frame, telling the projectionist to change the reel. Cue Sheet    A list of music and audio tracks used in the production of a video maintained for the purposes of obtaining proper usage rights. Curvilinear Perspective    A system that describes how to draw 3D objects on 2D surfaces. Cut    An abrupt, but usually trivial film transition from one sequence of the video to another. Cut-in    A shot that shows material present in a scene in greater detail, usually using a close-up shot. Cutaway    An interruption of the flow of action created by the insertion of a single shot in the sequence during editing. Cuts-Only Editing    A fast editing technique that limits the editing to the shifts between scenes, without any transitions. Cutting On Action    The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. Cutting On Reaction    A filmmaking technique where the camera cuts away from a character or event to show the reaction of that character or event. Cutting Rhythm    The rhythmic pattern established by the duration of the shots that make up a scene. Cutting To Tighten    A process used in editing in order to shorten a series of shots. CVC    Compact Video Cassette CVSD    Continuously variable slope delta modulation CVSD Modulation    A technique for converting an analog voice signal into a serial bitstream. CWL-CAV    Constant-Minimum Wavelength-Constant Angular Velocity CX    A noise reduction system for recorded analog audio. CXP    CoaXPress Cyan    A blue-green color, complementary to red. Cyclic Redundancy Check    A code used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data. Cyc Light    Row lights for evenly illuminating a cyclorama or other background. Cyclorama    A panoramic image displayed the inside of a cylindrical platform, designed to give viewers standing in the middle of the Cylinder a 360° view,
D
D-1    An early (1986) SMPTE standard format for recording and storing digital video at a resolution 720 × 486 (NTSC). D-2    An early (1988) professional recording format for storing digital video; created by Ampex. D-3    An early (1991) uncompressed composite digital video storage format; commercialized by Panasonic. D-4    A recording tape format was never developed because the number 4 is considered unlucky in Japan. D-5    A professional video recording format developed by Panasonic (1994) using the same 1/2 inch tapes as D-3. D-5 HD    A high-density extension of the D-5 format; uses an intra-frame compression with a 4:1 ratio but the same tape. D-6    An SMPTE videocassette standard capable of recording and playing uncompressed HDTV signal. D-7    A variation of DV developed by Panasonic and introduced in 1995 for use in electronic news gathering (ENG) equipment. D-9    An early (1995) professional digital video videocassette format created by JVC. D-9 HD    A high definition digital component format based on D-9. D-Beta    A tape format that superseded both Betacam and Betacam SP in 1993. D-Cinema    The use of digital technology to distribute or project movies. D-ILA    A projection technology that uses miniaturized reflective active-matrix liquid-crystal display using a liquid crystal layer on top of a silicon backplane. D-SUB    D-subminiature D-subminiature    A common type of electrical connector. D-tanshi    A physical and logical analog interface, defined in the original IEEE 802.3 standard for 10BASE5 Ethernet. D-Terminal    A physical and logical analog interface, defined in the original IEEE 802.3 standard for 10BASE5 Ethernet. D-VHS    A digital video recording format developed by JVC, in collaboration with Hitachi, Matsushita, and Philips. D/I    Drop and insert D1    D-1 D2    D-2 D3    D-3 D4    D-4 D5    D-5 D6    D-6 D6 HDTV VTR    An SMPTE videocassette standard capable of recording and playing uncompressed HDTV signal. D7    DVCPRO D9    D-9 DA    Distribution amplifier DA-88    A digital multitrack recorder (1993) that uses tape as the recording medium and can record up to eight tracks simultaneously. Daala    A video coding format under development by the Xiph.Org Foundation designed to rival HEVC and VP9. DAC    Digital-to-analog converter DAGC    Delayed automatic gain control DAIC    Diagnostically Acceptable Irreversible Compression Dailies    Daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes. Daisy Chain    A wiring scheme in which multiple devices are wired together in sequence or in a ring. DALI    Digital Addressable Lighting Interface Dark-frame Subtraction    A way to reduce image noise in photographs. Dark Current    The relatively small electric current that flows through photosensitive devices; one of the main sources of noise in image sensors such as CCDs. Dark Dot Defect    The result of a transistor in the transparent electrode layer of an LCD being stuck 'on.' DASH    MPEG-DASH DAT    Digital Audio Tape Data-rate Units    A measure of the average number of bits passed between two points of a communication link in a fixed timeframe; usually expressed in bit/s, kbps, Mpbs and Gbps. Datacasting    The broadcasting of data over a wide area using radio waves. Data Compression    An encoding process that results in a decrease in the number of bits required to store data. Data Corruption    Errors in computer data that occur during writing, reading, storage, transmission, or processing, which introduce unintended changes to the original data. Data Slicing    Any process that extracts meaningful digital information from incoming analog signals. DAVIC    Digital Audio Video Council DAW    Digital Audio Workstation Day For Night    Cinematic techniques that allow simulating a night scene while filming in daylight. Daylight Harvesting    A lighting design strategy that maximizes the use of natural light. Daylight Lamp    A lighting component with a correlated color temperature value comparable to that of daylight (between 5500K and 6500K.) Day Out Of Days    Chart tallying the number of paid days for each cast member of a film production crew. DB    Decibel DB13W3    An obsolete D-subminiature connector used for analog video interfaces. DBC    Digital Betacam DBm    A unit of power expressed in decibels with reference to one milliwatt. DBRN    Decibels above reference noise DBS    Direct broadcast via satellite DBV    A unit used to measure microphone sensitivity: voltage relative to 1 volt, regardless of impedance. Dbx    A family of noise reduction systems developed by Dobly. DC    Direct current DC-to-DC    A circuit or device that converts direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another. DC/DC Converter    A circuit or device that converts direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another. DC Component    The average luminance of the picture. DCDM    Digital cinema distribution master DCE    Distributed Codec Engine DCI-P3    A common RGB color space for digital movie projection from the American film industry. DCI 2K    A standard for video display with a resolution of 2048 × 1080 and an aspect ratio of 256:135 (1.8962:1). DCI 4K    A standard for video display with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 and an aspect ratio of 16:9. DCII    DigiCipher DCP    Digital Cinema Package DCSC    Color Space Converter DCT    Discrete cosine transform DDC    Display Data Channel DDP    Disc Description Protocol DDS    Digital Data Storage DDWF    Digital Display Working Group De-emphasis    A systematic process designed to decrease, within a band of frequencies, the magnitude of some frequencies with respect to the magnitude of others. De-emphasis Network    A circuit used in a demodulation process to restore the pre-emphasized frequency response to its original form. De-essing    The techniques related to reducing or removing exaggerated hissing in recorded voice patterns. Dead Roll    A technique used in broadcasting when an event's broadcast is extended beyond its original timeframe and overlaps the next scheduled program. Dead Spot    A place in which a sound waves are canceled by reflections arriving out of phase with the wanted signal thus creating an area of silence or poor audibility. Dead Sync    During editing, the moment when the sound and picture elements align perfectly. Dead Time    A visual effect of detaching the time and space of a camera from those of its visible subject. Deaf Aid    A type of in-ear monitor connected to an interruptible foldback system (IFB). Debayering    A color reconstruction algorithm used in image processing to reconstruct a full-color image from an incomplete color samples output. Deblocking Filter    A processing filter that aims to improve the visual quality and prediction performance of an encoded video by smoothing sharp edges. Decay    The time it takes for a sound or note to go from peak amplitude (attack) to the sustain level as it is absorbed by the surfaces of objects in the space within which it occurs. Decibel    In audio, a logarithmic unit of measurement of the sound pressure level, expressed as ratio or gain. Decibels Above Reference Noise    A way to describe noise in terms of reference noise. Decibel Watt    A unit for measuring the strength of a signal expressed in decibels relative to one watt. Decimation Filter    A digital signal processing filter that approximates a sequence of samples that would have been obtained by sampling at a lower rate. Decipher    The process of reading data in one format and outputting it in another. Deck    A tape recorder designed to record and playback video and audio material on magnetic tape. Decode    The process of reading data in one format and outputting it in another. Decoder    In a camera, a circuit that converts signals from analog to digital. The term can also refer to the computer software used to perform decoding functions during format conversions. Decoder Box    A device that is connected to a television so that it can receive digital signals. Deep Focus    A style of cinematography and staging that uses relatively wide angle lenses and small lens apertures by maintaining objects in the extreme background and foreground simultaneously focused. Deep Focus Shot    A shot with an unusual depth of field. Deep Learning Super Sampling    A form of deep learning that is being used to upscale lower resolution images to a higher resolution for display on higher resolution monitors. Defeat    An expression that means "turn off." Defeat Filter    A device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range. Defective Pixel    A pixel on an LCD or CCD that is not functioning properly. Deferred Live    An intentional delay when broadcasting live material. Definition    A measure of an aggregate of the fine details available on-screen during playback. Deflate    A lossless data compression file format. Deflicking    A filtering operation applied to brightness in video processing. Defocus Dissolve    A video transition where one scene simultaneously goes out of focus and dissolves while the next scene is brought into focus. Defocus Transition    A type of transition accomplished by rolling the lens focus until the scene becomes blurred. Degausser    A device designed to manipulate magnetic fields to erase recordings on magnetic tapes and films, or to demagnetize magnetic recording heads. Degaussing    A device designed to manipulate magnetic fields to erase recordings on magnetic tapes and films, or to demagnetize magnetic recording heads. Degradation    The deterioration in quality, level, or standard of performance of an electronic signal during transmission. Deinterlacing    The process of converting interlaced video into a non-interlaced form. Delay Correction    A technique used to reduce or eliminate errors caused by mechanical instability present in analog recordings on mechanical media. Delay Distortion    A shifting of output voltage relative to input by an amount which is disproportional to frequency. Phase Distortion is undetectable until it is amplified. Delayed Automatic Gain Control    An automatic gain control system that only operates when the signal exceeds a predetermined threshold. Delay Line    A network of electrical components connected in a cascade, where each individual element creates a time difference between its input and output. Demagnetizer    A device designed to manipulate magnetic fields to erase recordings on magnetic tapes and films, or to demagnetize magnetic recording heads. Demassified Media    Media that reaches a group of people much smaller than traditional media outlets. Demodulation    A process performed by an electronic circuit that separates the audio and video signals from the original carrier wave signal. Demo Reel    A short, edited video montage or footage showcasing someone's work for the purpose of employment or promotion. Demosaicing    A color reconstruction algorithm used in image processing to reconstruct a full-color image from an incomplete color samples output. Demosaicking    A color reconstruction algorithm used in image processing to reconstruct a full-color image from an incomplete color samples output. Demultiplexing    Software or logic circuits that extract individual elementary streams of a media file, e.g., audio, video, or subtitles and sends them to their respective decoders for actual decoding. Demux    Software or logic circuits that extract individual elementary streams of a media file, e.g., audio, video, or subtitles and sends them to their respective decoders for actual decoding. Denoising    The process of removing noise from a video signal. Denouement    In scriptwriting: the unfolding of the driving story, or the final resolution or conclusion of a plot. Densitometer    A device that measures the darkness of a material or a reflecting surface. Depth Of Field    In an image , the distance between the closest and the farthest objects that are acceptably sharp. Depth Of Focus    The distance between the camera lens and the film or sensor that can be altered without blurring the image. Depth Of Modulation    A measure of how much the modulated carrier deviates from the unmodulated carrier amplitude. Depth Perception    The subjective evaluation by humans of the distance between objects viewed with regard to their size and the planes they describe. Descrambler    A device that reverses the effect of signal scrambling on the receiving side. Descriptive Video Service    A service that provides an audio description of the setting and action of a film for the visually impaired. Deserializer    In high-speed communications, a pair of functional blocks used to convert data between serial data and parallel interfaces in each direction. Desibilizing    The techniques related to reducing or removing exaggerated hissing in recorded voice patterns. Desktop Video    A period (from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s) that saw the fusion of personal computers and home video components for elaborate videomaking. Detail Enhancement    An embedded electronic circuitry or a software process that adds contrast and produces clearer outlines to images. Detailer    An embedded electronic circuitry or a software process that adds contrast and produces clearer outlines to images. Detent Switch    A channel selector with preset positions, where the detent mechanism determines the correct position by way of physical resistance. Detent Tuner    A channel selector with preset positions, where the detent mechanism determines the correct position by way of physical resistance. Deutsches Institut Für Normung    An international connector standard for both audio and video signals. Device Independent Bitmap    A raster graphics image file format developed by Microsoft for the Windows and OS/2 operating systems. DF    Drop Frame DI    Digital intermediate Diagnostically Acceptable Irreversible Compression    The amount of lossy compression which can be used on a medical image to produce a result that does not prevent the reader from using the image to make a medical diagnosis. Dialect Coach    An acting coach who helps an actor design the voice and speech of a character in a particular production context. Dialogue    A written or spoken exchange between two or more people; alternatively, a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. Dialogue, Music And Effects    A file containing separate tracks for the 3 primary divisions of sound in film: dialogue, music, and sound effects; used for final mix, foreign language dubbing, or trailer editing. Dialogue Editor    A sound editor that focuses his or her work on editing the spoken exchanges or tracks. Dialogue Track    An audio track that contains the isolated recording of the speech, separate from those which contain the music and the sound effects. Diaphragm    In a camera, a component designed to control amount of peripheral light going through the lens aperture. Dichroic    The property of a material or surface to reflect or transmit different colors. Dichroic Conversion Filter    A color correction filter that balances the color values of objects. Dichroic Daylight Conversion Filter    A photographic lens filter that balances the color values between direct sunlight and artificial light so images shot in both settings match. Dichroic Filter    An optical filter designed to transmit light selectively according to wavelength. Dichroic Mirror    A glass surface coated with a metal film that reflects light in a range of colors while it allows the others to pass through. Dichroism    The property of a material or surface to reflect or transmit different colors. Diegesis    A storytelling style that relates the internal world from the point of view of the characters' own experience. Diegetic Sound    The sound that is present and/or captured during the recording of the video. Difference Key    A matte extraction technique that separates a subject from its background using pixel value differences. Difference Mattes    A matte extraction technique that separates a subject from its background using pixel value differences. Differential Gain    In television technology, the amount of color saturation change that occurs when the luma changes. Differential Nonlinearity    A measure of performance in digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters. Differential Phase    Distortion in TV broadcasting that affects the color hue. Differential Pulse-code Modulation    A signal encoder that uses prediction of the samples of the signal in addition to pulse-code modulation (PCM). Diffraction    Phenomena that cause light waves to spread around the edges of a narrow obstacle or aperture. Diffused Light    The light produced directly or through reflection by an extended surface, resulting in a uniform and soft distribution with minimal shadows. Diffused Reflection    The result of a light source that is not reflected on, but rather absorbed by, the surface of the subject. Diffuser    Material that alters the quality of light passing through in order to produce lighting with less noticeable shadows. Diffusion    The light produced directly or through reflection by an extended surface, resulting in a uniform and soft distribution with minimal shadows. Diffusion Filter    A lens filter that gives the recorded images a foggy, dreamy look. Digi    A tape format that superseded both Betacam and Betacam SP in 1993. DigiBeta    A tape format that superseded both Betacam and Betacam SP in 1993. Digicam    A camera that captures images in digital memory (as opposed to physical film.) DigiCipher    A proprietary format standard for the transmission and encryption of HDTV signals. Digiscoping    The use of a camera to record distant images through an optical telescope. Digital-S    An early (1995) professional digital video videocassette format created by JVC. Digital-to-analog Converter    A system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal. Digital Addressable Lighting Interface    Trademarked standard interface protocol designed to control and automate lighting in buildings and industrial facilities. Digital Advanced Television    Refers to any or all of television system formats (analog or digital) that can display at a higher resolution than those of old standards. Digital Asset    Anything that exists in a self-contained, binary format and comes with the right to use. Digital Audio    Sound recorded and converted to digital format. Digital Audio Tape    A linear medium for recording and playing back signal, developed by Sony and introduced in 1987. Digital Audio Video Council    A non-profit international organization based in Switzerland (closed). Digital Audio Workstation    A generic term referring to the computer application or the device used for recording, editing, and producing audio files. Digital Betacam    A tape format that superseded both Betacam and Betacam SP in 1993. Digital Camera    A camera that captures images in digital memory (as opposed to physical film.) Digital Cinema    The use of digital technology to distribute or project movies. Digital Cinema Distribution Master    The deliverable of the post-production step prior to a Digital cinema package. Digital Cinema Package     Digital movie files that are used to store and play DC images, audio, and data streams. Digital Cinematography     Recording a video with a digital camera instead of with film. Digital Color Space Converter    A piece of software or circuitry that converts between different color spaces. Digital Component Video    A video signal that has been split into two or more components. Digital Composite Video    A digital representation of an analog TV display. Digital Data Storage    A storage technology based on digital audio tape (DAT) format. Digital Disk Recorder    A system that uses a high-capacity hard disk to record digital audio or video. Digital Display Working Group    A group whose purpose was to define and maintain the DVI standard. Digital Imaging Technician    A person that works on the technical aspects of digital cinematography, such as workflow and image manipulation. Digital Interface For Video And Audio    A bi-directional interface for transmitting compressed and uncompressed videos and audio. Digital Intermediate    The process of optimizing the appearance of digital video using color correction, color grading, and final mastering. Digitalization    The general process of converting audio or video files from analog to digital. Digital Light Processing     A group of chipsets that are used in front and rear projection units. Digital Micromirror Device    The microoptoelectromechanical system (MOEMS) that is the core of the trademarked DLP projection technology from Texas Instruments (TI). Digital Multiplex 512    The standard for digital communication networks that allow 512 channels to be controlled digitally through 1 data cable; commonly used to control stage lighting and effects. Digital Negative    An image format for digital photography developed and patented by Adobe. Digital On-screen Graphic    A watermark logo for a television station overlayed on the screen during the broadcast. Digital Photography    The production of still images using cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors and focused by a lens. Digital Picture Exchange    A standard file format for digital intermediate and visual effects (ST 268-1:2014). Digital Recording    A process that includes digitizing of an audio or video signal and converting the result to a stream. Digital Rights Management    Access control technologies used for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. Digital Satellite Service    A network of satellites that broadcast digital television signals. Digital Signal    The result of the conversion of the original (analog) video signal into a pattern of bits. Digital Signal 0    A basic digital signaling rate of 64 kilobits per second. Digital Signal 1    The primary digital telephone standard used in the United States, Canada and Japan to transmit multiplexed voice and data calls over telephone lines. Digital Signal 3    A terrestrial and satellite format for transmitting information digitally. Digital Signal Processor    A specialized microprocessor chip optimized for the needs of digital signal processing. Digital Signal Zero    A basic digital signaling rate of 64 kilobits per second. Digital Single-lens Reflex Camera    A combination of a digital imaging sensor with the optics and mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera. Digital Single Lens Reflex    A digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, as opposed to photographic film. Digital Source Master    The original motion picture supplied to the Digital Cinema encoding facility. Digital Subscriber Line    A family of technologies used to transmit digital data over copper telephone lines. Digital Switchover    The process in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television. Digital Television    The broadcasting of video and audio signals in digital format, or the television sets that decode these incoming signals. Digital Television Transition    The process in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television. Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast    The digital TV standard for mobile and fixed devices, developed in the People's Republic of China. Digital Terrestrial Television    A technology for terrestrial television stations to broadcast television content in a digital format via radio waves. Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting    A technology for terrestrial television stations to broadcast television content in a digital format via radio waves. Digital Theatre Interim Mastering Format    An interchange format that allows one digital master to be played on projectors from different manufacturers. Digital Transmission Content Protection    The name of a technology standard that restricts consumer electronic products by encrypting interconnections between devices. Digital Versatile Disc    An optical disc storage format that can store any kind of digital data and is widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs. Digital Video Broadcasting    A set of international, open standards for digital television. Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld    A technical specification for bringing broadcast services to mobile handsets. Digital Video Broadcasting Cable    The DVB standard for the broadcast transmission for digital multiprogram television distribution by cable. Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite Second Generation    The latest extension of the DVB-S television standard. Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation Terrestrial    The latest extension of the DVB-T television standard, as standardized by ETSI. Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial    The DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast of digital television signals over terrestrial airwaves. Digital Video Effect    A visual effect that includes comprehensive video image manipulation, such as transitioning, tumbling, strobing, posterization, solarization, etc. Digital Video Recorder    A device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, memory drive, or other networked mass storage. Digital Videotape Recorder    A device that records video in a digital format and stores it on tape. Digital Visual Interface    A video display interface used to connect a video source to a display device. Digital Voodoo    An SMPTE videocassette standard capable of recording and playing uncompressed HDTV signal. Digital Watermarking    Marker embedded in a digital signal typically used to identify ownership of the copyright of the original signal. Digital Zoom    A method of decreasing the apparent angle of view that combines cropping and digital enhancement. Digitization    The general process of converting audio or video files from analog to digital. DiiVA    A bi-directional interface for transmitting compressed and uncompressed videos and audio. Dimmer    A device for varying power to the lights. DIN    German Institute for Standardization DIN 1.0/2.3    An RF connector used for coaxial cable at microwave frequencies. DIN Connector    An international connector standard for both audio and video signals; common in Europe. Diopter    A unit of measure equal to the reciprocal of focal length. Diopter Lens    A secondary lens used to enable macro photography without requiring a specialized primary lens. Diplexer    A device that combines two independent signals onto one set of wires. Dirac    An open and royalty-free video format developed by the BBC. Direct3D    A component of Microsoft DirectX utilizing the video card or graphics processing unit to render 3D graphics. Direct Animation    An animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock. Direct Broadcast Via Satellite    An alternative to cable and analog satellite reception that transmits television signals in a digital format via a satellite in geosynchronous orbit with the Earth. Direct Current    The flow of charged particles in one unchanging direction. Direct Cut    An instantaneous change of shots executed without an optical transition device. Directed Light    The light produced by point light sources. Directing The Eye    The tactic of using lighting and other composition elements to emphasize the important part of the shot. Direct Lighting    Lighting where more than 90% of the light goes directly from the source to the area you wish to illuminate. Director    The person who directs the making of a video production controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the script. Director's Cut    A version of a video meant to represent the director's own approved edit. Director Of Photography    The person responsible for the camera and the lighting work during the production of a film or video. Direct Reflection    The result of a light source that is reflected off of a surface (usually the subject) and directly into the camera. Direct Sound    When sound and image are recorded at the same time. DirectSound    A deprecated software component of the Microsoft DirectX library providing an interface between Windows applications and the sound card driver. DirectVobSub    An obsolete software add-on for Microsoft Windows that is able to read external subtitle files and superimposes them on a playing video file. DirectX    A collection of APIs for handling tasks related to multimedia on Microsoft platforms. DirectX Video Acceleration    A Microsoft API specification for the Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 platforms that allows video decoding to be hardware-accelerated. Disc Description Protocol    A standard way of setting disc specifications; commonly used for delivery of disc pre masters for duplication. Discovery Shot    A type of camera shot where the camera movement unexpectedly discovers an object or person in a scene that was previously undisclosed. Discrete Cosine Transform    A method for compressing video pictures by resolving blocks into frequencies, amplitudes, and colors. Discretization    The first step in the process of converting an analog signal into its digital form. DISH    Satellite dish Display Data Channel    A collection of protocols for digital communication between a computer display and a graphics adapter. Display Device    An appliance, such as a monitor or television, that presents the video signal in a visual or tactile form. Display File    A series of graphics commands that define an output image. Display List    A series of graphics commands that define an output image. DisplayPort    A digital display interface used to connect a video source to a display device as well as carry audio, USB, and other forms of data. Dissector Tube    A video camera tube used in television broadcasting up until the 1930s. Dissolve    A transition between two scenes where the first merges imperceptibly into the second. Dissolve Defocus     Distortion    The deviation in shape or structure from the original shape or structure of an image or sound. Distributed Codec Engine    An API and its implementation as software library ("libdce") by Texas Instruments. Distribution Amplifier    A device that amplifies and distributes an original signal to multiple, isolated outputs without distortion. Distribution Format Exchange Profile    A W3C's standard regulating timed text on the internet. Distributor    In the movie industry: the company responsible for the marketing of a film. DIT    Digital imaging technician Dither    A form of noise applied to randomize quantization error and to prevent large-scale patterns in images. DIVA    DiiVA DivX    A brand of video codec products developed by DivX, LLC. DL    Delay line DLP    Digital Light Processing DLP Cinema    A version of DLP technology developed for digital movie presentations. DLSS    Deep learning super sampling DMD    Digital micromirror device DME    Dialogue, Music and Effects D Mount    A type of lens mount commonly found on 8mm movie cameras. DMS-59    A connector providing two DVI or VGA outputs in a single connector. DMX512    The standard for digital communication networks that allow 512 channels to be controlled digitally through 1 data cable; commonly used to control stage lighting and effects. DNL    Differential nonlinearity DOF    Depth of Field Dolby 5.1    Six-channel (five speakers and one subwoofer for bass) digital surround sound system by Dolby. Dolby Atmos    A surround sound technology developed by Dolby Laboratories. Dolby Digital    Audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. Dolby E    Audio data compression and decoding technology that allows 6 to 8 channels of audio to be compressed into an AES3 digital audio stream that can be stored as a standard stereo pair of digital audio tracks. Dolby Noise-reduction System    A noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analog audio tape recording. Dolby NR    A noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analog audio tape recording. Dolby SR    A noise reduction format was developed by Dolby Laboratories and has been in common use in professional audio since 1986 and in cinema audio since the late 1980s. Dolby Stereo    A sound format made by Dolby Laboratories. Dolby Stereo 70 Mm Six Track    Dolby noise reduction used on the six magnetic soundtracks of a 70 mm film print. Dolby SVA    The more significant sound format made by Dolby Laboratories. Dolby TrueHD    A lossless multi-channel audio codec developed by Dolby Laboratories which is used in home-entertainment equipment such as Blu-ray Disc players and A/V receivers. Dolby Vision    A set of technologies to support HDR video. Dolly    A wheeled cart that allows a camera operator to smoothly pull or push a camera while traveling on a smooth surface. Dolly Grip    A dedicated technician trained to operate the camera dolly. Dollying    A camera shot that physically advances or changes the position of the camera relative to the subject, changing the spatial relations between a subject and its surroundings. Dolly Shot    A camera shot that physically advances or changes the position of the camera relative to the subject, changing the spatial relations between a subject and its surroundings. Dolly Zoom    An in-camera effect that keeps the focus on a single point while zooming one way and dollying the other way. DOOD    Day out of days Dot Crawl    A visual defect of color analog video consisting of animated checkerboard patterns that appear along with horizontal color transitions. Double-size VGA    A resolution of 960 × 640 pixels. Double-system Recording    A common production technique where sound and video are recorded on different devices. Double Exposure    The visual effect resulting from the superimposition of two exposures to create a single image. Down-conversion    Converting from a higher quality format to a lower one. Downstream Keying    A visual effect in which one video signal is keyed on top of another. DP    Cinematographer DPCM    Differential pulse-code modulation DPX    Digital Picture Exchange DR    Dynamic range Drag And Drop    The part of the user interface that allows for virtual objects to be moved to a different location using the mouse pointer. DRAM    Dynamic random-access memory Dramatic Action    The subtextual drama and actions that are driving and sustaining both the dialogue and the physical actions occurring on-screen. Drawn-on-film Animation    An animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock. DRC    Dynamic Distortion Drift    Flutter that occurs in analog media at random rates. Driver    In lighting, a piece of electronic equipment that regulates and transforms the main supply voltage into a voltage appropriate for LED lighting. DRM    Digital rights management Drone    A camera-equipped aircraft without a human pilot on board. Drop-frame Timecode    Timecode that is modified to remain in sync when 29.97 fps NTSC video is broadcast at 30 fps. Drop-In    Inserting audio in a track by playing up to a chosen point and switching the analog device from playback to record mode. Drop And Insert    A point in the digital transmission process where parts of the signal can be dropped out and/or inserted. Drop Frame    A type of SMPTE time code designed to match the real-time of common clocks. Dropout    A momentary partial or complete loss of picture and/or sound caused by a device glitch or failure. Dry Gate    The process of scanning the physical film with no fluid present. DS0    Digital Signal 0 DS1    Digital Signal 1 DS3    Digital Signal 3 DSK    Downstream Keying DSL    Digital subscriber line DSLR    Digital Single Lens Reflex DSM    Digital source master DSP    Digital signal processor DSR    Signaling rate DSS    Digital Satellite Service DTCP    Digital Transmission Content Protection DTIM    Digital Theatre Interim Mastering Format DTMB    Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast DTS-HD MA    DTS-HD Master Audio DTS-HD Master Audio    A high-definition audio codec used for surround-sound movie soundtracks on Blu-ray Disc. DTTB    Digital terrestrial television broadcasting DTV    Desktop video Dual-system Sound    A common production technique where sound and video are recorded on different devices. Dub    The file or media that is the result of a dubbing process. Dubbing    A process used in post-production where additional recordings are mixed with original production sound to create the finished soundtrack. Dunning    Combining studio-filmed shots with background footage that has been filmed in a different place. Dupe    A physical copy of a film negative. Duplitized Film    A type of motion picture print film stock used for some two-color natural color processes. Dust Bust    The process of removing dust, dirt, and scratches from a frame. Dutch Angle    A type of shot that produces a viewpoint akin to tilting one's head to the side. Dutch Tilt    A type of shot that produces a viewpoint akin to tilting one's head to the side. Duvetyne    Heavy black cloth commonly used for blacking out light sources, controlling light spills and background scenery. DV    A format for storing digital video. DV AVI    A type of AVI file where the video has been formatted to the DV standards. DVB    Digital Video Broadcasting DVB-C    Digital Video Broadcasting Cable DVB-H    Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld DVB-S2    Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite Second Generation DVB-T    Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial DVB-T2    Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation Terrestrial DVCAM    Sony's professional version of DV. DVCPRO    A variation of DV developed by Panasonic and introduced in 1995 for use in electronic news gathering (ENG) equipment. DVD    An optical disc storage format that can store any kind of digital data and is widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs. DVD-Video    The video format used to store digital video on commercial DVD discs. DVE    Digital video effect DVGA    A resolution of 960 × 640 pixels. DVI    Digital Visual Interface DVR    Digital video recorder DVR-MS    Microsoft Digital Video Recording DVS    Descriptive Video Service DVTR    Digital videotape recorder DXVA    DirectX Video Acceleration Dynamic Adaptive Streaming Over HTTP    An adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables media streaming by conventional HTTP web servers. Dynamic Cutting    An approach to film editing in which the cutting from one shot to the next is made abruptly apparent to the viewer. Dynamic Distortion    Audio processing that limits the dynamic range of the signal by amplifying low-level signals and/or attenuating high-level signals. Dynamic Frame    A visual technique that uses dynamic variations in the video frame ratio -- narrowing and widening -- to match or emphasize the scene. Dynamic Microphone    Type of microphone that works like a loudspeaker in reverse, using a magnet and wire coil to convert sound waves into an electrical signal. Dynamic Random-access Memory    A type of random-access semiconductor memory. Dynamic Range    The ratio between the largest and smallest values of an audio or video digital signal. Usually expressed in decibels. Dynamic Range Compression    Audio processing that limits the dynamic range of the signal by amplifying low-level signals and/or attenuating high-level signals. Dynamic Rounding    Dynamic Rounding is a technique devised by Quantel for truncating the word length of pixels – an unavoidable process when processing images.
E
Ear    A flag up on the side of a lighting unit to block light. Earset    A headset is a combination of a headphone with a microphone. EAV    End of active video EBU    European Broadcasting Union EBU/SMPTE    The European Broadcasting Union, an alliance of public service media organizations, established on 12 February 1950. ECC    Error correction code Echo    The result of a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener after the direct sound with a delay. Edge Enhancement    A processing filter that enhances the edge contrast of an image or video in an attempt to improve its apparent sharpness. Edge Numbers    A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm negatives. EDH    Error Detection and Handling EDID    Extended Display Identification Data Edit    Process or result of selectively recording video and/or audio on finished videotape. Edit Conflict    A computer problem that can occur when multiple editors make changes to the same file during a short time period. Edit Controller    A device that connects to and controls both the source and record machines during the video editing process. Edit Control Protocols    Signaling scheme (record, pause, rewind, and so on) that allow computers and analog tape decks to communicate. Edit Decision List    A list that contains an ordered sequence of media and timecode data representing where each video clip can be obtained in order to conform to the final cut. Edit Master    The recording media containing the completed/edited program. Editor    The technician who assembles a movie or video from raw footage. Edit Point    The location in a video where a production event occurs. EDL    Edit Decision List EDTV    Enhanced-definition television Effective Output Level    In audio, a measure of microphone sensitivity: the ratio in dB of the power available relative to sound pressure. Effects Stock    Repository or service provider that stores and distributes visual effects footage for reuse. EFP    Electronic field production EGA    Enhanced Graphics Adapter EIA-608    A standard for closed captioning NTSC TV broadcasts in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. EIA Multiport    An audio/video connector used in consumer equipment, especially in Europe. Eisensteinian Montage    Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. Electret Condenser    Microphone type incorporating a precharged element, eliminating need for bulky power sources. Electric Arc    A lighting unit that generates illumination from an electrical arc between two carbon electrodes. Electronic Ballast    A subtype of ballast that uses power electronics to provide a high-frequency voltage and controlled current for fluorescent lamps. Electronic Field Production    Film-style production approach using a single camera to record on location. Typically shot for post-production application, non-live feed. Electronic News-gathering    The use of portable video cameras, lighting, and sound equipment to record news events in the field. Electronic Press Kit    A press kit for the digital age. Electronic Program Guide    An application that provides an on-screen listing of all programming and content that is available to a viewer. Electrostatic Microphone    Microphone where the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, and the air vibrations change the distance between the plates. Electrotachyscope    An early motion picture system developed between 1886 and 1894. Ellipsis    The intentional omission of one or more words from a clause. Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight    A type of stage lighting instrument, named for the ellipsoidal reflector used to collect and direct the light through a barrel that contains a lens or lens train. Embedded Audio    Multiplexed digital audio payload in a video signal. EME    Encrypted Media Extensions Emulsion    The photo sensitive layer on a piece of film or paper. Encode    The process of writing data to a different format, usually for the purpose of compressing to a smaller size. Encrypted Media Extensions    A W3C specification for enabling the CDM software that implements DRM to communicate with a web browser. Encryption    The process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. End Credits    A list of the production personnel (actors, cast, and crew) displayed at the tail end of a movie, video stream, or similar media.  End Of Active Video    In BT.656, a stream-delimiting code indicating the start of a video sequence. ENG    Electronic news-gathering Enhanced-definition Television    Marketing shorthand term for certain digital television (DTV) formats and devices. Enhanced Graphics Adapter    An IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987. Entocentric    A compound lens that has its entrance or exit pupil inside the lens. Envelope    Description of how a sound changes over time. EPG    Electronic program guide Epilogue    A piece of writing at the end of a work used to bring closure to the work. EPK    Electronic press kit Equalization    The sound in a room. It is recorded and intercut with dialogue to smooth out any editing points. Era    In scriptwriting, a historical time and place that serves as the setting or “special world” of a story. Error Concealment    In digital video recording systems, a technique used when error correction fails. Erroneous data is replaced by data synthesized from surrounding pixels. Error Correction    In digital video recording systems, a scheme that adds overhead to the data to permit a certain level of errors to be detected and corrected. Error Correction Code    A block of check data used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels. Error Detection    In digital video recording systems, a scheme that adds overhead to the data to permit a certain level of errors to be detected and corrected. Error Detection And Handling    Error detection and handling for recognizing inaccuracies in the serial digital signal. ERS    Ellipsoidal reflector spotlight Essence    The actual program (audio, video and/or data) without metadata. Ess Sound    The excessive or exaggerated hissing in recorded voice patterns. Establishing Shot    Opening image of a program or scene. Ethernet    A type of high-speed network for interconnecting computing devices. ETTR    Exposing to the right EuroAV    An audio/video connector used in consumer equipment, especially in Europe. EUROBLOCK    European-style terminal block Euroconector    An audio/video connector used in consumer equipment, especially in Europe. European-style Terminal Block    A low-voltage disconnectable (or pluggable) connector and terminal block combination commonly used for microphone- and line-level audio signals, and for control signals such as RS-232 or RS-485. European Broadcasting Union    Usually refers to the 25 FPS time code standard adopted by European nations. EV    Exposure value Exposing To The Right    The photographic technique of adjusting the exposure to collect the maximum amount of light. Exposition    The insertion of background information within a story or narrative. Exposure    The amount of light per unit area reaching the image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance. A higher exposure will result in a brighter picture. Exposure Compensation    A technique for adjusting the exposure indicated by a photographic exposure meter, in consideration of factors that may cause the indicated exposure to result in a less-than-optimal image. Exposure Meter    A device used to measure the amount of light. Exposure Value    A number that represents a combination of a camera's shutter speed and f-number, such that all combinations that yield the same exposure have the same EV (for any fixed scene luminance). Expurge    A form of censorship that involves purging anything deemed noxious or offensive from a film or other piece of material destined for publication. Extended Display Identification Data    A metadata format for display devices to describe their capabilities to a video source (e.g. graphics card or set-top box). Extended Graphics Array    A resolution of 1024 × 768 display. Extended Graphics Array Plus    A resolution of 1152 × 864 pixels. External Rhythm    The rhythmic pattern established by the duration of the shots that make up a scene. Extra    Accessory talent not essential to a production, assuming some peripheral on-camera role. Extreme Close Up    The shot is so tight that only a detail of the subject, such as someone's eyes, can be seen. Eyeline Match    A technique where the editor cuts to a shot of something that a character is looking at off-screen.
F
F-number    Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters. F-ratio    Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters. F-stop    Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters. F-type Connector    A coaxial RF connector commonly used for "over the air" terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or, in older installations, with RG-59/U cable. F4A    MPEG-4 Part 14 audio (.m4a) encrypted with the Adobe Access DRM scheme. F4B    MPEG-4 Part 14 audio for audiobooks and podcasts (.m4b) encrypted with the Adobe Access DRM scheme. F4P    File format and extension for Flash Video that contains media encrypted with their Adobe Access DRM scheme. Fade    The visual transition between an image and a black screen. FairPlay    A DRM technology developed by Apple Inc. Fantasound    A stereophonic sound reproduction system developed by engineers of Walt Disney Studios and RCA for Walt Disney's animated film Fantasia, the first commercial film released in stereo. Fast Cutting    A film editing technique that refers to several consecutive shots of a brief duration (e.g. 3 seconds or less). Fast Motion    The process of slowing the frame rate of a camera down the action appears faster during playback at normal speed. Fauxtography    Digitally manipulated photograph. Alternatively: using a camera and telling your subject you’re taking a photo, but secretly taking a video! FC    Fibre Channel FCC    Federal Communications Commission F Connector    A coaxial RF connector commonly used for "over the air" terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or, in older installations, with RG-59/U cable. FDDI    Fiber Distributed Data Interface Feather    A technique used in computer graphics software to smooth or blur the edges of a feature. FEC    Channel coding Federal Communications Commission    The U.S. Agency which governs radio and television broadcasting. Feedback     Infinite loop of visual patterns from signal output being fed back as input; achieved by aiming live camera at receiving monitor. Feed Lines    Lines of dialogue which are read outside camera range for the benefit of an 'on camera' or 'on microphone' actor or voice over artist. Fequency Discrimination    Exaggeration or diminution of particular frequencies in relation to others. FFC    Flat-field correction Ffdshow    An open source unmaintained codec mainly used for decoding of video in the MPEG-4 ASP (e.g. encoded with DivX or Xvid) and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video formats, but it supports numerous other video and audio formats as well. FFL    Flange focal length FFmpeg    A free and open-source project consisting of a vast software suite of libraries and programs for handling video, audio, and other multimedia files and streams. FFV1    A lossless intra-frame video codec. FF Video Codec 1    A lossless intra-frame video codec. FHA    Anamorphic widescreen FHD    A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. Fiber Distributed Data Interface    A standard for data transmission in a local area network. Fiber Optics     Thin glass filaments in a jacket sending light over distances without loss. Fibre Channel    A high-speed data transfer protocol (commonly running at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 128 gigabit per second rates) providing in-order, lossless delivery of raw block data. Field    One-half of a complete television picture consisting of one complete vertical scan of the video image containing 262.5 line for NTSC and 312.5 lines for PAL. Two fields make up a complete television picture frame. Field-sequential Color System    A color television system in which the primary color information is transmitted in successive images and which relies on the human vision system to fuse the successive images into a color picture. Field Dominance    The choice of which field of an interlaced video signal is chosen as the point at which video edits or switches occur. Field Of View    A measurement of the subject area visible to the camera. Field Rate    The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. Filament    The wire coil that is heated to produce lighting in incandescent and halogen lamps, normally made from tungsten. File Footage    Video footage that can be used again in other films. File Format    The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame. Fill Leader    Film leader used to fill in the blanks in picture workprint Fill Light    The light that provides a soft-edged field of light used to provide additional subject illumination to reduce harsh shadows or areas not highlighted by the key light. Film    A dramatic performance recorded as a moving image, whether on film, videotape or digital media. Film-out    The process of transferring images or animation from videotape or digital files to a traditional film print. Film-style    An out-of-sequence approach to shooting the video or film, with the results to be assembled and edited in appropriate order at the post-production stage. Film Artifact    Damage to the physical media of a film that results in a visible or auditory defect or error.  Film Base    A transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. Film Chain    Projectors, multiplexors and cameras, connected for the purpose of transferring film to video. Film Crew    The group of people hired to work behind the camera(s) on the production of a film or video. Film Director    The person who directs the making of a video production controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the script. Film Flub    A chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods. Film Frame    One of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture. Film Gauge    The width of photographic or motion picture film stock. Film Grain    The grain of photographic film is a signal-dependent noise, with similar statistical distribution to shot noise. Film Language    Reference to the combination of elements that make up the mode of communication between a film and its audience. Film Leader    A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine. Filmmaker    A person who engages in and is responsible for, the process of making a movie or extensive video at all stages. Filmmaking    The process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Film Noir    Usually refers to the classic black and white film noir style used in detective mysteries, typically employing hard lighting and dark, low key lighting. Film Perforations    Square holes in the side of a roll of film that is used to wind it through the camera or projector's mechanism. Film Plane    The area inside any camera or image taking device with a lens and film or digital sensor upon which the lens creates the focused image. Film Producer    The person who oversees film production. Film Production    The process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Film Scanner    A device made for scanning photographic film directly into a computer without the use of any intermediate printmaking. Film Score    The original-music composition for a motion picture or television production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited. Film Stock    A term to describe a film that is used for shooting and reproduction. Filmstrip    A form of still image instructional multimedia, once commonly used by educators in primary and secondary schools (K-12), overtaken at the end of the 1980s by newer and increasingly lower-cost full-motion videocassettes and later on by DVDs. Film Treatment    A piece of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and the first draft of a screenplay for a motion picture, television program, or radio play. Filter    A transparent material having the ability to absorb certain wavelengths of light and transmit others. Filter Graph    Used in multimedia processing - for example, to capture video from a webcam. Filters take input, process it (or change the input), and then output the processed data. Firewire    An interface standard that is commonly used for connecting hard drives and cameras to computers. First-person Shot    A short film scene that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera). Fisheye Lens    An ultra-wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion intended to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image. FITS    Flexible Image Transport System Fixed-pattern Noise    A particular noise pattern on digital imaging sensors. Fixed Focal Length    A lens with a fixed focal length. FLAC    Free Lossless Audio Codec Flag    A device used on set to block light. Flange Back Distance    The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane. Flange Focal Depth    The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane. Flange Focal Distance    The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane. Flange Focal Length    The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane. Flare    Bright flashes and/or extreme contrast reduction evident in picture, caused by excessive light beaming into a camera's lens and reflecting off its internal glass elements Flashback    An interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point in the story. Flash Cut    A very quick shot that can have an almost subliminal effect. These shots can sometimes be as short as one frame. Flashforward    A scene that temporarily takes the narrative forward in time from the current point of the story in literature, film, television and other media. Flash Frame    A very short shot appearing in a sequence of images. Flash Video    A container file format used to deliver digital video content (e.g., TV shows, movies, etc.) over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player version 6 and newer. Flat    A term used to describe a film that was not shot with an anamorphic lens. Flat-field Correction    A technique used to improve quality in digital imaging. Flat-panel Display    An electronic viewing device used to enable people to see content (still images, moving images, text, or other visual material) in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, and mobile devices, and many types of medical, transportation and industrial equipment. Flat Lighting    Illumination characterized by even, diffused light without shadows, highlights, or contrast. Flex File    A computer-generated file that establishes the relationship between timecode, keykode and often audio timecode. Flexible Image Transport System    An open standard defining a digital file format useful for storage, transmission and processing of data: formatted as multi-dimensional arrays (for example a 2D image), or tables. Flicker    The alternation of light and dark which can be visually perceived. Flicker Fusion Rate    A concept in the psychophysics of vision. Flicker Fusion Threshold    A concept in the psychophysics of vision. Flip    To position an image upside-down. Flip-over    An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right. Float    Periodic vertical movement of the image which occurs as a result of mechanical faults in the camera, printer, or projector. Flood    The widest beam spread on a lensed light. Floodlight    Radiates a diffused, scattered blanket of light with soft, indistinct shadow Flop    To position an image back-to-front so that the left side is now positioned on the right and vice versa. Flop-over    An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right. Flow Motion    A visual effect of detaching the time and space of a camera from those of its visible subject. Fluid Head    Tripod mount type containing viscous fluid which lubricates moving parts, dampens friction. Design facilitates smooth camera moves, alleviates jerkiness. Fluorescent Lamp    A low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light. Flutter    The rapid variation of amplitude, phase, or frequency that causes the video to move back and forth very rapidly. Flux    An amount of light which is present as measured in lumens. FLV    File format and extension for Flash Video that contain material encoded with codecs following the Sorenson Spark or VP6 video compression formats. Flying Erase Heads    Facilitates smooth, seamless edits whenever the camcorder recording begins. Without a flying erase head, a video "glitch" may occur at scene transitions. The erase head is mounted on the spinning (flying) video head drum. FM    Frequency modulation Foamcore    Polystyrene which is sandwiched between paper. Focal Length    A measure of the distance, in millimeters, between the optical centre of the lens and the camera’s sensor. Focal Length Multiplier    The ratio of the dimensions of a camera's imaging area compared to a reference format -- typically: the 35 mm film format. Focal Ratio    Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters. Focus    The area on which compositional elements converge. Typically refers to the sharpest elements in the image. Focus Pull    Shifting focus between subjects in the background and foreground so a viewer’s attention moves from subject to subject as the focus shifts. Foley    The art of reproducing and creating sounds for film. Foley Artist    A person who records sound effects using the foley process. Foley Walker    A person who records sound effects using the foley process. Follow Focus    A control mechanism that allows you to easily make changes on the focus ring of your camera lens. Follow Shot    A specific camera angle in which the subject being filmed is seemingly pursued by the camera, for example by a Steadicam. Foot    A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine. Foot-candle    Measurement unit for illuminance, or lumens per unit of area. One foot-candle is equivalent to one lumen per square foot Footage    Main footage used in production. Contrast with B-roll. Footage Numbers    A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm negatives. Forced Perspective    A technique that employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther away, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. Foreshadowing    In a script, the area where a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story. Format    The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame. Format Factor    The ratio of the dimensions of a camera's imaging area compared to a reference format -- typically: the 35 mm film format. Forward Error Correction    A transmission scheme that uses redundant data to provide error detection, correction, and retransmission of packets that fail to arrive at the receiver. Found Footage    The use of footage as a found object, appropriated for use in collage films, documentary films, mockumentary films and other works. Fourth Wall    The imaginary plane that separates the characters and action of the film from the viewing audience. FOV    Field of view FPD    Flat-panel display FPD-Link    The original high-speed digital video interface created in 1996 by National Semiconductor (now within Texas Instruments). FPN    Fixed-pattern noise FPS    Frame rate Fractal Compression    A lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. Fragmentation    A phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. Frame    One of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture. Frame Buffer    Memory used to store a complete frame of video. Frame Cut    An edit in which the source and record tapes pick up exactly where they left off. Frame Grabber    High-speed digitizer capable of capturing frames at the rate necessary to create real-time motion. Frame Rate    A measure of the number of frames displayed per second in a video. Frames Per Second    A measure of the number of frames displayed per second in a video. Framestore    Memory used to store a complete frame of video. Frame Synchronization    A digital electronic device which synchronizes two or more video signals. The frame synchronizer uses one of its inputs as a reference and genlocks the other video signals to the reference's sync and color burst signals. Framing    Act of composing a shot in a camcorder’s viewfinder for desired content, angle and field of view. Framing Device    A narrative technique that uses a recurrent element at the beginning and the end of the story. Fraunhofer FDK AAC    An open-source software library for encoding and decoding Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) format audio, developed by Fraunhofer IIS, and included as part of Android. Fraunhofer FDK AAC Codec Library For Android    An open-source software library for encoding and decoding Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) format audio, developed by Fraunhofer IIS, and included as part of Android. Free Lossless Audio Codec    An audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation. Free Viewpoint Television    A system for viewing natural video, allowing the user to interactively control the viewpoint and generate new views of a dynamic scene from any 3D position. Freeze    An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated in order to appear stationary when it is projected. Freeze Frame    An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated in order to appear stationary when it is projected. Frequency    The number of times a signal vibrates each second as expressed in cycles per second (cps) or Hertz (Hz). Frequency Modulation    Frequency modulation is a process used for radio (FM broadcast) and television audio transmission and videotape recording. Frequency Response    A measure of the effectiveness with which a circuit, device, or system processes and transmits signals fed into it, as a function of the signal frequency. Fresnel Lens    A type of lens placed in front of lamps in order to focus the light given off into a controllable beam. Friction Head    A type of tripod head mount that relies on friction to hold its position. Front Projection Effect    An in-camera visual effects process in film production for combining foreground performance with pre-filmed background footage. Frosted Lens    A white lens that is translucent but not transparent, which diffuses the output of a lamp. Frozen Moment    A visual effect of detaching the time and space of a camera from those of its visible subject. FSC    Field-sequential color system FTV    Free viewpoint television Fujifilm X-mount    A type of interchangeable lens mount designed by Fujifilm for use in those cameras in their X-series line that have interchangeable-lenses. Full Common Intermediate Format    A format standard for the resolution, frame rate, color space, and color subsampling of video sequences in teleconferencing systems. Full Field    A complete frame of video that is comprised of two fields. Full Frame    The process of formatting a wide-screen film onto video by selecting the area of the film frame to show in order to accommodate the different aspect ratios of wide-screen film and television. Full HD    A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. Full Height Anamorphic    A process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium with a narrower aspect ratio. Full Raster    A full frame image that has not been squeezed to preserve bandwidth. The opposite of thin raster. Full Screen    A video which has been altered to the 4:3 (or 1.33:1) aspect ratio of the old standard television screen. Full Wide Video Graphics Array    A resolution of 854 × 480 pixels. Fushia    A red-purple color which is the complementary color of green. FWVGA    A resolution of 854 × 480 pixels. FX    Special effect
G
G-clamp    A clamp for attaching a large piece of hardware to a pipe or batten. GA    Grand Alliance Gaffer    The chief lighting technician for a production who is in charge of the electrical department. Gaffer Tape    A type of non-damaging, super durable tape used on film sets, most often by the gaffer and grip department. Gaff Tape    A type of non-damaging, super durable tape used on film sets, most often by the gaffer and grip department. Gain    A measurement of the ratio between two quantities. In audio and video, gain refers to a measure of the increase in loudness, level or volume relative to the input signal. Game Camera    A camera placed by a photographer in areas where the photographer generally cannot be at the camera to snap the shutter. Gamma    The degree of contrast in a negative or print. Gamma Correction    A measure of the correction applied to the video display to compensate for the input signal. Gamut    The entire range of colors capable of being displayed or recorded by the current input / ouput device or file format. Garbage Matte    A rough matte used to exclude parts of an image that another process, such as bluescreen, would not remove. Gate    The aperture assembly at which the film is exposed in a camera, printer, or projector. Gaussian Noise    A random variation of brightness or color information in images. GB    Gigabyte Gel    A transparent colored material used to color light and for color correction. General Parameter    Space on a DVD player to store up to 16 1-bit numeric variables. Generation    The number of duplication steps between an original recording and a given copy. A second generation duplicate is a copy of the original master and a third-generation duplicate is a copy of a copy of the original master, etc. Generation Loss    When an analog master videotape is duplicated, the second-generation copy is usually inferior in some way to the master. Generic Interface For Cameras    A generic programming interface for machine vision (industrial) cameras. GenICam    A generic programming interface for machine vision (industrial) cameras. Genlock    A device which enables a composite display (usually a TV) to combine two signals simultaneously by locking one while processing the other. Acronymn for "generator locking device." Genre    A type of film for which the audience has a set of particular expectations based on cultural conventions. German Institute For Standardization    An international connector standard for both audio and video signals. Ghosting    A copy of the transmitted image super-imposed with an offset on top of the main image. GIF    Graphics interchange format Gigabit Video Interface    A digital video serial interface developed by Sony in 1996 for high-quality uncompressed video transmission from digital video hardware. Gigabyte    A unit for measuring computer memory capacity, equivalent to 1,000 megabytes. GigE Vision    An interface standard introduced in 2006 for high-performance industrial cameras. Glare    Visual impairment caused by a bright source of light, directly visible or reflected by a surface. Glitch     Global Motion Compensation    A motion compensation technique used in video compression to reduce the bitrate required to encode video. GMC    Global motion compensation GNOME Videos    A media player (audio and video) for the GNOME computer desktop environment. Gobo    A stencil or template placed inside or in front of a light source to control the shape of the emitted light. Godspot    An effect used in stage lighting for the theatre. Gofer    Film or video production assistant often sent to "Go for" coffee or other essentials. Go Motion    A variation of stop motion animation which incorporates motion blur into each frame involving motion. GOP    Group of pictures Gopher    Film or video production assistant often sent to "Go for" coffee or other essentials. GPRM    General Parameter Grain    The random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small particles of a metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver halide that have received enough photons. Grand Alliance    The consortium created in 1993 at the behest of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop the American digital television (SDTV, EDTV) and HDTV specification, with the aim of pooling the best work from different companies. Graphic Match    A cut made on action or movement between two shots in which the action has been overlapped either by repetition of the action or by the use of more than one camera. Graphics-safe Area    Boundaries within which contents of a television picture are sure to be seen, regardless of masking differences in receiver displays. Graphics Coordinator    An individual who works, usually on a television show, as a producer of on-air still and motion graphics. Graphics Interchange Format    A bitmap image format. Gray Card    A standard reference object for exposure determination in photography and video. Grayscale    An image composed exclusively of shades of gray to represent the intensity (light.) GR Connector    A type of RF connector used for connecting coaxial cable. Green Book    Compact disc standards. Green Screen    A compositing technique used for layering images or video streams based on matching hues. Grip    Production crew stagehand responsible for handling equipment, props, and scenery before, during, and after production. Gross Bit Rate    The aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system. Group Delay    A phenomenon involving timing differences between video signal components. For example, a long cable run may introduce a substantial delay between the transmission of the color and brightness video information resulting in shadows. Group Of Pictures    Specifies the order in which intra- and inter-frames are arranged. Guerrilla    People or production of an effective video on a shoestring budget. GVIF    Gigabit Video Interface
H
H.120    The first digital video compression standard, developed by COST 211 and published by the CCITT (now the ITU-T) in 1984, with a revision in 1988 that included contributions proposed by other organizations. H.261    An ITU-T video compression standard first ratified in November 1988. H.262    A standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information". H.263    A video compression standard originally designed as a low-bit-rate compressed format for videoconferencing. H.264     The name of the most common video compression standard for high-definition digital video for resolutions up to 8K. Also known as MPEG-4 AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10. H.265    A video compression standard, designed as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10). H.320    A umbrella Recommendation by the ITU-T for running Multimedia (Audio/Video/Data) over ISDN based networks. HA    High-angle shot Hair Light    Light placed behind the subject to create a glamorous halo effect on the hair or a rugged-looking highlight on the cheek. Helps separate the subject from the background. Halation    An unintended halo effect causing a blurring or spreading of light around the bright areas of a photographic image or on an analog television screen. Half-size VGA    A resolution of 480 × 320 pixels (3:2 aspect ratio), 480 × 360 pixels (4:3 aspect ratio), 480 × 272 (≈16:9 aspect ratio), or 640 × 240 pixels (8:3 aspect ratio). Halo    A bright line that appears in the high contrast areas of an image which has been subjected to significant editing. Halogen Lamp    Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. Handle    Extra material beyond the in and out points to allow a clip to be extended and provide additional material for transitions. Hanging Miniature    An in-camera special effect similar to a matte shot where a model, rather than a painting, is placed in foreground and the action takes place in the background. Hard And Soft Light    Different types of lighting that are commonly used in photography and filmmaking. Hard Disk    Common digital storage component in a computer. Hard Disk Recorder    A system that uses a high-capacity hard disk to record digital audio or video. Hard Light    Type of lighting that creates brilliant highlights and sharp shadows. Hardware Acceleration    The use of computer hardware specially made to perform some functions more efficiently than is possible in software running on a general-purpose central processing unit (CPU). Hardware DRM    Digital content protection enforced by electronic components. Hardware Restriction    Digital content protection enforced by electronic components. Harmonic Distortion    When any signal is passed through an electronic circuit, the signal may be changed in many ways. In video, the image may become blurred, noisy or contain shadows. In audio, odd harmonics (third, fifth, etc.) produce harsh and unpleasant sounding audio. HD    High-definition HD+    A resolution of 1600 × 900 pixels. HD Audio    A specification for the audio sub-system of personal computers. HDBaseT    A consumer electronic (CE) and commercial connectivity standard for transmission of uncompressed high-definition video (HD), audio, power, home networking, Ethernet, USB, and some control signals, over a common category cable (Cat5e or above) using the same 8P8C modular connectors used by Ethernet. HDCAM    A high-definition video digital recording videocassette version of digital Betacam. HDCAM SR    A standard for HDCAM that uses a higher particle density tape and is capable of recording in 10 bits 4:2:2 or 4:4:4 RGB with a video bit rate of 440 Mbit/s, and a total data rate of approximately 600 Mbit/s. HDCP    High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection HDD    Hard disk HD DVD    High Definition Digital Versatile Disc HDi    Microsoft's implementation of the Advanced Content interactivity layer in HD DVD. It is used in the Xbox 360 HD DVD add-on as well as stand-alone HD DVD players. HDI-45    A proprietary 45-pin cable-to-onboard video connector by Apple. HDMI    High-Definition Media Interface HDR    High dynamic range HDR10    The most common open HDR standard. HDR10+    An HDR technology that adds dynamic metadata to HDR10 source files. HD Ready    A progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). HDRI    High-dynamic-range imaging HDRR    High-dynamic-range lighting HDTV    High-definition television HDV    A format for recording of high-definition video on DV cassette tape. Head    A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine. Head-on Shot    When film’s action moves directly at the camera. Head Leader    A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine. Headroom    Space between the top of a subject’s head and a monitor’s upper-screen edge. Headset    A headset is a combination of a headphone with a microphone. Headshot    A modern (usually digital) portrait in which the focus is on the person. Heart Wipe    A wipe that takes the shape of a growing or shrinking heart, and is used to impart a sense of "love" or "friendship". Heatsink    A passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels. Helical Scan    A method of recording video information diagonally on a tape, used in home and professional VCRs. HEP    High-efficiency plasma Hertz    The unit of measurement for the number of cycles per second. 1Hz = 1 cycle per second. HEVC    High Efficiency Video Coding HFC    Hybrid fiber-coaxial Hi-8    An improved version of the 8mm tape format capable of recording better picture resolution (definition). Hi-con Print    A film print with the maximum contrast between light and dark elements. HI-FI    High fidelity Hi8    An improved version of the 8mm tape format capable of recording better picture resolution (definition). HID    High-intensity discharge lamp High-angle Shot    A cinematic technique where the camera looks down on the subject from a high angle. High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection    A form of digital copy protection developed by Intel Corporation to prevent copying of digital audio & video content as it travels across connections. High-concept    A type of artistic work that can be easily pitched with a succinctly stated premise. High-definition    A general term for a video signal with a significantly higher resolution than standard definition. High-Definition Media Interface    A digital connector carrying both audio and video signal on consumer electronics and modern computers. High-definition Television    Refers to any or all of television system formats (analog or digital) that can display at a higher resolution than those of old standards. High-dynamic-range Imaging    A technique used to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity in images and videos. High-dynamic-range Lighting    The rendering of computer graphics scenes by using HDR lighting calculations. High-dynamic-range Rendering    The rendering of computer graphics scenes by using HDR lighting calculations. High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding    An audio coding format for lossy data compression of digital audio defined as an MPEG-4 Audio profile in ISO/IEC 14496-3. High-efficiency Plasma    An emerging lighting technology that uses radiofrequency to stimulate a contained gas and create a small but very bright ball of plasma. High-intensity Discharge Lamp    A type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. High-key Lighting    A style of lighting for film, television, or photography that aims to reduce the lighting ratio present in the scene. High-Pass Filter    An electronic filter used in various audio circuits to attenuate all frequencies below a chosen frequency. High-shelf Filter    An audio filter that allows allows frequencies above a certain threshold to pass through while reducing lower ones. High Definition Digital Versatile Disc    An obsolete high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video. Supported principally by Toshiba, HD DVD was envisioned to be the successor to the standard DVD format. High Dynamic Range    A video and image technology that improves the way light intensity variations are represented. High Efficiency Video Coding    A video compression standard, designed as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10). High Fidelity    Most commonly used to refer to the high-quality audio tracks recorded by many VCRs. Highlight Headroom    A measure of how much additional dynamic range is required to capture the detail within the brightest parts of a scene. Highlighting    Using beams of light for the purposes of illuminating particular aspects of a subject. High Performance Parallel Interface    A parallel data channel used in mainframe computers that supports data transfer rates of 100 Mbps. Hip Hop Montage    A subset of fast cutting used in a film to portray a complex action through a rapid series of simple actions in fast motion, accompanied by sound effects. HIPPI    High Performance Parallel Interface Hiss    A random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. Hitchcock Shot    An in-camera effect that keeps the focus on a single point while zooming one way and dollying the other way. HLG    Hybrid log-gamma HMI    Hydrargyrum Medium-arc Iodide Hook    The nucleus of both a film and its screenplay. Horizontal Blanking Interval    The time between the end of one scanning line and the beginning of the next. The vertical blanking interval is the time between the end of one video field* and the beginning of the next. Horizontal Mattes    The result of converting a film from widescreen aspect ratio to standard. Letterboxing creates black areas above and below the original clip to make up for missing content. Horizontal Resolution    Specification denoting the amount of discernable detail across a screen's width. Measured in lines or dots per inch, the higher the number the better the picture quality. Horizontal Scan Rate    Horizontal scan rate, or horizontal frequency, usually expressed in kilohertz, is the frequency at which a CRT moves the electron beam from the left side of the display to the right and back, and therefore describes the number of horizontal lines displayed per second. Hot Pixel    A defective pixel resulting from a group of sub-pixel transistors being either "off" or stuck "on." Hot Shoe    A mounting point with electrical contacts on the top of a camera used to attach a flash unit or compatible accessory. House Sync    A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video. HPF    High-Pass Filter HQVGA    A resolution of 240 × 160 or 160 × 240 pixels. HSL    HSL/HSV HSL/HSV    Acronymns for Hue, Saturation, Lightness (HSL) and Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) . HSL and HSV are color space naming conventions that allow for selecting colors more intuitively than by entering RGB or CMYK numbers. HTML5 Video    The standard way to show video on the web. HTTP    Hypertext Transfer Protocol Hue    The shade or tint of a color. Huffman Coding    A particular type of optimal prefix code that is commonly used for lossless data compression. HuffYUV    A lossless video codec created by Ben Rudiak-Gould which is meant to replace uncompressed YCbCr as a video capture format. Hum    A low, steady sound caused by electrical interference. HVGA    A resolution of 480 × 320 pixels (3:2 aspect ratio), 480 × 360 pixels (4:3 aspect ratio), 480 × 272 (≈16:9 aspect ratio), or 640 × 240 pixels (8:3 aspect ratio). Hybrid Fiber-coaxial    A telecommunications industry term for a broadband network that combines optical fiber and coaxial cable. Hybrid Log-gamma    A backward-compatible HDR standard used in 4K television broadcasting. Hydrargyrum Medium-arc Iodide    Device that emits light via pressurized mercury vapor and metal halides. Ideal for imitating daylight, they keep relatively cool and have a very high light output. HMI light has a color temperature of around 5600K. Hydrargyrum Medium-arc Iodide Lamp    The trademark name of Osram's brand of metal-halide gas discharge medium arc-length lamp, made specifically for film and entertainment applications. Hypercentric    A lens system where the entrance pupil is located in front of the lens, in the space where an object could be located. Hypertext Transfer Protocol    An application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. Hyperzoom    A type of photographic zoom lens with unconventionally large focal length factors, typically ranging from wide-angle to extreme long lens focal lengths in one lens. HZ    Hertz
I
I-frame    An I‑frame (Intra-coded picture) is a complete image, like a JPG or BMP image file. I‑frames are the least compressible but don't require other video frames to decode. I.LINK    An interface standard that is commonly used for connecting hard drives and cameras to computers. I2S    An electrical serial bus interface standard used for connecting digital audio devices together. IBM 8514    An IBM graphics computer display standard supporting a display resolution of 1024x768 pixels with 256 colors at 43.5 Hz (interlaced; 87 fields per second), or 640x480 at 60 Hz (non-interlaced). 8514 usually refers to the display controller hardware (such as the 8514/A display adapter.) ICC    International Color Consortium ICC Profile    A file that characterizes a color input, output device, or color space. Iconoscope    A video camera tube used in early television broadcasting. Ident Bumper    A brief announcement in a broadcast between a pause and a commercial break. IEC    International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 60958 Type I    A standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices. Commonly known as S/PDIF. IEC 60958 Type II    A type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances. IEEE    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE 802.1AS    A protocol used to synchronize clocks throughout a computer network. IEEE 802.1Qat    An enhancement to Ethernet that implements admission control. IEEE 802.3    A type of high-speed network for interconnecting computing devices. IEEE 1394    An interface standard that is commonly used for connecting hard drives and cameras to computers. IES    Illuminating Engineering Society of North America IFB    Interrupt for broadcast IFB Earpiece    A type of in-ear monitor connected to an interruptible foldback system (IFB). IHD    Microsoft's implementation of the Advanced Content interactivity layer in HD DVD. It is used in the Xbox 360 HD DVD add-on as well as stand-alone HD DVD players. IHDA    Intel High Definition Audio Illegal Colors    Colors present in a video signal that are not supported by the current video playback system. Illuminance     Illuminating Engineering Society Of North America    An industry-backed, not-for-profit, learned society that was founded in New York City on January 10, 1906. IM    Intensity modulation IMA    Interactive Multimedia Association Image Dissector    A video camera tube used in television broadcasting up until the 1930s. Image Gradient    A directional change in the intensity or color in an image. Image Sensor    A sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current that convey the information. Image Stabilization    A camcorder feature which takes out minor picture shakiness, either optically or electronically. Impedance    The measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. The term complex impedance may be used interchangeably. Impedance Matching    A video signal occupies a wide spectrum of frequencies, from nearly DC (0 Hz) to 6 MHz. If the output impedance of either the video source, cable or input impedance of the receiving equipment are not properly matched, a series of problems may arise. IMTC    International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium In-camera Editing    A technique where, instead of editing the shots in a film into the sequence after shooting, the director or cinematographer instead shoots the sequences in strict order. In-camera Effect    Any special effect in a video or movie that is created solely by using techniques in and on the camera and/or its parts. Inbetweening    The process of generating intermediate frames between two images, called key frames, to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image. Incandescent Light Bulb    A type of lamp with a tungsten filament that glows when it carries current. Incident Light    Light which emanates indirectly from a light source, measured from the object it strikes to the source. Inciting Event    A character, event, or set of circumstances that motivate or otherwise cause a protagonist to take action, start a quest or a journey. Inciting Incident    A character, event, or set of circumstances that motivate or otherwise cause a protagonist to take action, start a quest or a journey. Incoming Scene    The second scene to appear in a dissolve or wipe effect. Indeo    A family of audio and video formats and codecs first released in 1992 and designed for real-time video playback on desktop CPUs. Indian-head Test Pattern    A test card for calibration of the RCA TK-1 monoscope. Inductance    The resistance of a coil of wire to rapidly fluctuating currents which increases with frequency. Ingress Protection Code    A two-digit code that indicates the resistance of a lighting fixture to solid particles and liquids, where higher digits indicate enhanced protection. In Point    The timecode position at which a clip begins. Input/output    The communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Insert    A shot of part of a scene as filmed from a different angle and/or focal length from the master shot. Insert Editing    An interruption of the flow of action created by the insertion of a single shot in the sequence during editing. Instant Replay    A video reproduction of something that recently occurred which was both shot and broadcast live. Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers    A professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting    A Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks. Integrated Services Digital Network    A set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. Intel High Definition Audio    A specification for the audio sub-system of personal computers. Intellectual Property Rights    Rights including patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. Intel Quick Sync Video    Intel's brand for its dedicated video encoding and decoding hardware core. Intensity Modulation    A form of modulation in which the optical power output of a source is varied in accordance with some modulating signal's characteristics. Intent    In a script, the implied objective or goal of a character. Inter-frame    A frame in a video compression stream is expressed in terms of one or more neighboring frames. Inter-IC Sound    An electrical serial bus interface standard used for connecting digital audio devices together. Interactive Film    A video game that presents its gameplay in a cinematic, scripted manner, often through the use of a full-motion video of either animated or live-action footage. Interactive Multimedia Association    An industry association that developed a set of audio algorithms. Interactive Television    A form of media convergence, adding data services to traditional television technology. Intercutting    A technique used in movies to establish action happening at the same time. Interference    A phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude. Interference Filter    An optical filter designed to transmit light selectively according to wavelength. Interlaced    A technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display. Internal Rhythm    Rhythm created by whatever appears or occurs within the shot of a moving picture. International Color Consortium    The organization that maintains a vendor-neutral, cross-platform color management system. International Commission On Illumination    The international authority on light, illumination, color, and color spaces. International Electrotechnical Commission    An international standards organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium    An organization consisting of several companies interested in real-time, rich-media communications. International Telecommunication Union    An international broadcast standards committee that replaced the CCIR. Internegative    A motion picture film duplicate. Internet Protocol Television    The delivery of television content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Internet Video    The general field that deals with the transmission of video over the Internet. Interpolation    A form of video processing in which intermediate animation frames are generated between existing ones by means of interpolation, in an attempt to make animation more fluid and to compensate for display motion blur. Interpositive    An orange-based motion picture film with a positive image made from the edited camera negative. Interrupt For Broadcast    A monitoring and cueing system used in video production and broadcasting for one-way communication from a director to an on-air talent or a remote location. Interruptible Feedback    A monitoring and cueing system used in video production and broadcasting for one-way communication from a director to an on-air talent or a remote location. Interruptible Foldback    A monitoring and cueing system used in video production and broadcasting for one-way communication from a director to an on-air talent or a remote location. Intertitle    Titles within the main body of a moving image, such as dialogue, continuity, and informational titles. Intertitles are mainly found in silent films. Intervalometer    A device that measures short intervals of time. Interval Timer    A device that measures short intervals of time. Into Frame    A person or object moving into the picture without the camera moving. Intra-coded Picture     Intra-frame    Video coding within a frame of a video signal. Intra-frame Coding     Invisible Cut    A transition that attempts to join two shots with similar frames together. Invisible Wipe    A wipe where a camera follows a person into another room by tracking parallel to the actor. IO    Input/output IP    Interpositive IP Code    A two-digit code that indicates the resistance of a lighting fixture to solid particles and liquids, where higher digits indicate enhanced protection. IP Rating    A two-digit code that indicates the resistance of a lighting fixture to solid particles and liquids, where higher digits indicate enhanced protection. IPTV    Internet Protocol television Iris    Video camera's diaphragm lens opening or aperture regulates the amount of light entering the camera. Size measured in f-stops. Iris-in    Starting a scene with an opening circle that comes in from the edges of the screen. Iris-out    Ending a scene with a closing circle that comes in from the edges of the screen. Iris Shot    A technique frequently used in silent film in which a black circle closes to end a scene. Iris Wipe    The wipe shape can also be circular through the use of the camera's iris. Irradiance    The radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area. Irreversible Compression    A compression scheme that discards data in order to lower file sizes. ISDB    Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting ISDN    Integrated Services Digital Network Iskiography    Computerized video processing technique, used to depict, in a single image, the tracks of bird flight paths recorded in numerous video frames. ISO    A camera setting in the digital cameras that changes how sensitive the sensor is to light. ISO/IEC 13522-5    Part of a set of international standards relating to the presentation of multimedia information, standardised by the Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group (MHEG). ITU    International Telecommunication Union ITU-R    ITU Radiocommunication Sector ITU-T    ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector ITU656    BT.656 ITU Radiocommunication Sector    The division of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) responsible for radio communication. ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector    One of the three Sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). ITV    Interactive television I‑frames    In the field of video compression, a video frame is compressed using different algorithms with different advantages and disadvantages, centered mainly around the amount of data compression.
J
J-cut    A type of cut in which the sound of the next scene precedes the picture. Jack    Any female socket or receptacle, usually on the backside of video and audio equipment, that accepts plug for a circuit connection. Jaggies    The informal name for artifacts in raster images, most frequently from aliasing, which in turn is often caused by non-linear mixing effects producing high-frequency components, or missing or poor anti-aliasing filtering prior to sampling. Jam Sync    Process of synchronizing a secondary time code generator with a selected master time code. Japanimation    Computer animation style originating from Japan. JETDS    Joint Electronics Type Designation System Jib    A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other. Jib Arm    A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other. Jingle    A short song or tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses. Jitter    The displacement of random horizontal lines in video frames. Jitter is the result of a loss of data between devices due to interference, cross-talk and other network disruptions. Jog    Manual control that facilitates viewing and editing precision and convenience Joint    A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording. Joint Electronics Type Designation System    A method developed by the U.S. War Department during World War II for assigning an unclassified designator to electronic equipment. Joint Frequency Encoding    An audio encoding technique designed to reduce the data rate by merging the frequency ranges of multiple sound channels. Joint Photographic Experts Group     JPEG    JPEG is a digital compression standard for still video images that allows the image to occupy less memory or disk space. Like the MPEG standard, it includes options for trading off between storage space and image quality. JPEG Extended Range    A still-image compression standard and file format for continuous tone photographic images, based on technology originally developed and patented by Microsoft under the name HD Photo (formerly Windows Media Photo). JPEG XR    JPEG extended range Juicer    An electrician. Jump Cut    An abrupt transition without continuity. Junior    A 2K light.
K
  Kelvin K-14 Process    The most recent version of the developing process for Kodak's Kodachrome transparency film Kell Factor    A parameter used to limit the bandwidth of a sampled image signal to avoid the appearance of beat frequency patterns when displaying the image in a discrete display device, usually taken to be 0.7. Kelvin    The unit of measurement used for color temperatures. Kerning    The process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result. KeyCode    An Eastman Kodak Company advancement on edge numbers, which are letters, numbers, and symbols placed at regular intervals along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm film to allow for frame-by-frame specific identification. Key Frame    A frame that contains a record of specific settings. Key Grip    The person that supervises all grip (lighting and rigging) crews and reports to the director of photography. Keying    The process of combining visual elements from separate sources into single images. Keykode    An Eastman Kodak Company advancement on edge numbers, which are letters, numbers, and symbols placed at regular intervals along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm film to allow for frame-by-frame specific identification. Key Light    The main light on a subject. Key Numbers    A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm negatives. Keystone Effect    Perspective distortion from a flat object being shot by a camera at other than a perpendicular angle. Kick    An object with a shine or reflection on it from another object. Kicker    Light placed behind the subject to create a glamorous halo effect on the hair or a rugged-looking highlight on the cheek. Helps separate the subject from the background. Kilohertz    The unit of measurement for the number of cycles per second. 1Hz = 1 cycle per second. Kilowatt    Measurement unit for electric power, equivalent to 1000 watts. Kine    A method of making a film copy of a television program in the days before the existence of Video Recorders. Kinemacolor    The first successful colour motion picture process, used commercially from 1908 to 1914. Kinematograph    The name of the original movie camera; a device that also served as a film projector and a printer. Kinescope    A method of making a film copy of a television program in the days before the existence of Video Recorders. Kinetic Depth Effect    The phenomenon whereby the three-dimensional shape of an object can be perceived while the object is casting shadows when moving. Kiss    A light that gently brushes a subject. Kuleshov Effect    A film editing (montage) effect demonstrated by Soviet filmmaker Lev Kuleshov in the 1910s and 1920s. It is a mental phenomenon by which viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation. KW    Kilowatt
L
LAB    CIELAB Lag    Camera pickup's retention of an image after the camera has been moved, most common under low light levels. Lagarith    An open-source lossless video codec written by Ben Greenwood. LANC    Logic Application Control Bus System Lap Dissolve    Transitioning between two scenes by fading out of the first as the next one becomes clearer. LaserDisc    A laser optical (reflective) video recording system that uses an analog technique called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to represent video information on a grooveless, smooth, round plastic disc. Latency    A time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed. Latent Image    An invisible image produced by the exposure to light of a photosensitive material such as photographic film. Latitude    The extent to which a light-sensitive material can be overexposed or underexposed and still achieve an acceptable result. Laugh Track    A separate soundtrack containing the sound of audience laughter. LAV    Lavalier microphone Lavalier Microphone    A small clip-on microphone that attaches to the subject’s clothing. Layback    Transfer of the finished audio mix back onto the video edit master. Layoff    Transfer of audio and time code from the video edit master to an audio tape. Layover    Transfer of audio onto multitrack tape or hard disk. Layup    Transfer of audio onto multitrack tape or hard disk. LCD    Liquid-crystal display LCOS    Liquid crystal on silicon L Cut    A type of cut in which the audio from the previous scene continues playing over the beginning of the next scene. LD    LaserDisc LDR    Photoresistor Leader    A length of nonimage film which is used for threading, identification, or fill-in purposes. Leading    The vertical spacing of textual characters. Lead Room    The distance between the subject and the edge of the frame in the direction the subject is looking. Lean    A lean-in followed by a lean-out. Lean-In    When the juxtaposition of shots in a sequence, usually in a scene of dialogue, starts with medium or long shots, for example, and ends with close-ups. Lean-Out    The opposite of a lean-in, moving from close-ups out to longer shots. Least Significant Bit    The bit position in a binary integer giving the units value, that is, determining whether the number is even or odd. LED    Light-emitting diode LED-backlit LCD    A flat panel display that uses LED backlighting instead of traditional cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL) backlighting. LED Array    A group of LEDs mounted on a printed circuit board, capable of producing a lighting output. LED Driver    In lighting, a piece of electronic equipment that regulates and transforms the main supply voltage into a voltage appropriate for LED lighting. Legend    Information superimposed on an image or blank screen. Leko    An ellipsoidal reflector spot light. Usually used for theatrical purposes. LEKO    Lekolite Lekolite    A brand of ellipsoidal reflector spotlight (ERS) used in stage lighting which refers to the half-ellipsoidal dome reflector within which the instrument's lamp is housed. Lena    The nickname of a standard test image used in image processing. Lenna    The nickname of a standard test image used in image processing. Lens    The transparent material (usually glass) through which the light beam enters the camera and is refracted onto the body and sensor of the camera. Lens Speed    The aperture of a camera lens. The lower the f/ (aperture ratio) value, the faster the lens. Letterboxing    The result of converting a film from widescreen aspect ratio to standard. Letterboxing creates black areas above and below the original clip to make up for missing content. LIB    Lithium ion batteries Libavcodec    A free and open-source library of codecs for encoding and decoding video and audio data. Library Pictures    Video footage that can be used again in other films. Library Shot    Video footage that can be used again in other films. Libvpx    Free software video codec library from Google and the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia). Light    The spectrum visible to the human eye. Light-emitting Diode    A solid-state component that emits light when exposed to electric current. Light-field Camera    A camera that captures information about the light field emanating from a scene. Light Diffuser    Material that alters the quality of light passing through in order to produce lighting with less noticeable shadows. Lighting Clamp    A clamp for attaching a large piece of hardware to a pipe or batten. Light Loss Factor    A factor used to account for the degradation in luminous output over time. Light Meter    A device used to measure the amount of light. Lightning    A proprietary computer bus and power connector created and designed by Apple Inc. Light Value    The light level of either the incident or the reflected light. Limiter    A signal processing circuit that attenuates the peaks of those that exceed a given threshold. Line 21 Captions    A standard for closed captioning NTSC TV broadcasts in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Linear Editing    Video editing based on the predetermined, sequential order of the images and sound; typically tape-to-tape. Linear Narrative    In scriptwriting, linear narrative is the most common form of narration, where events are largely portrayed in chronological order, that is: telling the events in the order in which they occurred. Linear Timecode    An encoding of SMPTE timecode data in an audio signal, as defined in SMPTE 12M specification. Line Doubler    A device or algorithm used to deinterlace video signals prior to display on a progressive scan display. Line Producer    A type of film producer who is the key manager during daily operations of a feature film, advertisement film, television film, or an episode of a TV program. Line Spacing    The vertical spacing of textual characters. Lip Sync    The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech. Liquid-crystal Display    A flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid Crystal On Silicon    A projection technology that uses miniaturized reflective active-matrix liquid-crystal display using a liquid crystal layer on top of a silicon backplane. Lithium Ion Batteries    The preferred type of battery for use in high-end video equipment. LiVES    A free video editing software and VJ tool, released under the GNU General Public License version 3 or later. Live Streaming    Online streaming media simultaneously recorded and broadcast in real-time. LLF    Light Loss Factor LM    Lumen Location    Any place filming occurs except a studio. Location Manager    A member of the film crew responsible for finding and securing locations to be used for the production to complete its work. Locked-down Shot    Filming a scene while the camera is fixed to keep the image motionless. Log    A record of start and end timecode, reel numbers, scene descriptions and other information for a specified clip. Logic Application Control Bus System    A control protocol allowing two-way communication between cameras and similar devices. Log Line    A brief (usually one-sentence) summary of a film that states the central conflict of the story and provides both a synopsis and an emotional hook to stimulate interest. Long-focus Lens    A camera lens that has a focal length longer than the diagonal measure of the sensor. Long Portrait    Takes portraiture photography and transfers it to video form, revealing a subject’s subtle expressions, mannerisms, and gestures. Long Shot    Camera view of a subject or scene from a distance, showing a broad perspective. Look Room    The distance between the subject and the edge of the frame in the direction the subject is looking. Lookup Table    A table of numbers that apply a color transform to an image. Looping    The process of re-recording dialog in the studio in synchronization with the picture. Lossless    A class of data compression schemes that result in no data loss. Lossless Compression    A class of data compression schemes that result in no data loss. Lossy    A compression scheme that discards data in order to lower file sizes. Low-angle Shot    In cinematography, a low-angle shot, is a shot from a camera angle positioned low on the vertical axis, anywhere below the eye line, looking up. Low-key Lighting    A high contrast lighting style with a lot of shadows and large areas of darkness. Low-pass Filter    A filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with higher frequencies. Low-pressure Sodium    A subtype of HID lighting where excited sodium vapor is the source of light. Low-shelf Filter    A low-shelf filter passes all frequencies, but increases or reduces frequencies below the shelf frequency by specified amount. Low-voltage Differential Signaling    A technical standard that specifies electrical characteristics of a differential, serial communication protocol. Lower Third    A partial overlay of a video stream that combines text and graphic elements to provide the viewer with contextual information. Lowkey    A high contrast lighting style with a lot of shadows and large areas of darkness. Lowpass Filter    A filter that attenuates frequencies above a specified frequency and allows those below that point to pass. LPF    Lowpass Filter LPS    Low-pressure sodium LS    Long shot LSB    Least significant bit LTC    Linear timecode Luma    The achromatic (black and white) portion of the image. Lumen    A measurement of light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point source of one candle intensity. Lumen Method    A simplified method to calculate the light level in a room. Lumi Masking    A technique used by video compression software, which reduces quality in very bright or very dark areas of the picture, as quality loss in these areas is less likely to be visible. Luminance    A measurement of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. Luminance Contouring    A video artifact caused by excessive quantization during the compression process. Luminance Noise    Image noise where only the brightness of a colored pixel is affected. Luminous Flux    Total output emitted by a light source, measured in lumens. Luminous Intensity    Lighting emission in a specific direction, measured in candelas. Luminous Power    Total output emitted by a light source, measured in lumens. LUT    Lookup table Lux    1 lux = 1 lumen per square meter. LV    Light value LVDS    TIA/EIA-644 LX    Lux
M
M&E    Music and Effects M/S    A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording. M2TS    A container file format used for multiplexing audio, video and other streams. M3U    Moving Picture Experts Group Audio Layer 3 Uniform Resource Locator M4V    A video container format developed by Apple and is very similar to the MP4 format. Macroblock    A processing unit in image and video compression formats based on linear block transforms, typically the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Macro Filter    A secondary lens used to enable macro photography without requiring a specialized primary lens. Macro Lens    A camera lens that uses a long barrel for close focusing. MADI    Multichannel Audio Digital Interface Mag Dubber    A device for the recording and playback of film sound that is recorded on magnetic film. Magenta    A red-purple color which is the complementary color of green. Magnetic Film    A medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. Magnetic Tape    A medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. Magnification Ratio    Range of a lens' focal length, from most "zoomed in" field of view to most "zoomed out." Main Profile At High Level For HDTV    Main Profile at High Level for HDTV and is implemented in DVB and ATSC systems with bitstreams running up to 19.4 Mb/s. Main Profile At Main Level    Main Profile at Main Level covers broadcast television formats up to 720 pixels x 576 lines and 30 fps so includes 720 x 486 at 30 fps and 720 x 576 at 25 fps. Making-of    A documentary film that shows the production of a film. Masking    A phenomenon whereby one or more sound "trick" the ear into not hearing other, weaker, sound that are also present. Master    Originally recorded videotape footage; "edited master" implies an original copy of the tape in its edited form. Duplications constitute generational differences. Master Shot    A film recording of an entire dramatized scene, start to finish, from a camera angle that keeps all the players in view. Match Cut    A cut made on action or movement between two shots in which the action has been overlapped either by repetition of the action or by the use of more than one camera. Match Dissolve    A transition between two scenes where the first merges imperceptibly into the second. Match Frame Edit    An edit in which the source and record tapes pick up exactly where they left off. Matching Ambient Sound    A soundtrack made of natural or otherwise atmospheric noise added to a scene to create a realistic aural environment.  Matching On Action    The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. Match Move    The process of matching the motion of a computer generated object with the motion of the camera or an object in order to blend it seamlessly within the frame. Match Moving    A technique that allows the insertion of computer graphics into live-action footage with correct position, scale, orientation, and motion relative to the photographed objects in the shot. Material Exchange Format    A professional cross-platform container format for video, audio and metadata. Matrix Switcher    A device which uses an array of electronic switches to route a number of audio/video signals to one or more outputs in almost any combination. Matrix Wipe    A patterned transition between two images. Matroska    A free, open-standard container format, a file format that can hold an unlimited number of video, audio, picture, or subtitle tracks in one file. Matroska Multimedia Container    A free, open-standard container format, a file format that can hold an unlimited number of video, audio, picture, or subtitle tracks in one file. Matte    A process shot in which foreground action is superimposed on a separately photographed background by an optical printer. Matte Artist    A person who creates background art for use in a matte shot. Matte Box    A box attached to the front of the video camera lens in order to block and absorb light. Matte Painting    The process of placing a glass-painted or digital background on footage in order to simulate a different or larger environment. MB    Megabyte MBMS    Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service MBONE    Multicast backbone MCASP    Multichannel Audio Serial Port MCU    Medium Close Up MDP    Mini DisplayPort Mean Lumens    Lighting output of a lamp or luminaire at 40 percent of its service life. MediaCoder    A proprietary transcoding program for Microsoft Windows, developed by Stanley Huang since 2005. MediaFLO    A technology, obsolete as of March 2011, developed by Qualcomm for transmitting audio, video, and data to portable devices used for mobile television. Media Source Extensions    A W3C specification that allows JavaScript to send byte streams to media codecs within Web browsers. Medium Close Up    Halfway between a mid shot and a close-up. Usually covers the subject's head and shoulders. Medium Shot    Defines any camera perspective between long shot and closeup, viewing the subjects from a medium distance. Megabyte    A measure of computer storage capability; the equivalent of 1,000 bytes. Megapixel    One million pixels; the total image sensors or display elements available in a digital camera or display, respectively. Memory Bank    A video that documents moments or events in a person's life. Memory Card    A device used to store photos and videos in your camera. Memory Effect    An effect observed in nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries that causes them to hold less charge. Mentor Character    In storytelling, a character helping the protagonist to achieve their objective. For example, Yoda in Star Wars is a mentor character. Meridian Lossless Packing    The standard lossless compression method for DVD-Audio content and typically provides about 1.5:1 compression on most music material. Metadata    Data that cannot be seen or heard, such as EDLs, timecode, etc. Metering Mode    The way a photographic camera determines the exposure. Mezzanine Compression    Contribution level quality encoded high-definition television signals, they are typically split into two levels: high level AT 140 Mb/s and low level at 39 Mb/s. MF    Milliframe MHEG-5    Part of a set of international standards relating to the presentation of multimedia information, standardised by the Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group (MHEG). MHL    Mobile High-Definition Link Mickey    An open-faced 1K light. Micro-DVI    A proprietary video output port found in the original MacBook Air. MicroDVD    A subtitle file format for digital video. Microphone Impedance    In order to obtain the highest quality output signal from a microphone, a preamplifier input should provide a load (impedance) which exactly matches a microphone's output impedance. Microphone Preamplifier    A microphone is a device which converts sound waves to electrical impulses (transducer). Microscanning    A method for increasing the resolution of digital cameras. Microsoft Digital Video Recording    A proprietary video and audio file container format, developed by Microsoft used for storing TV content recorded by Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows Vista and Windows 7. Microsoft Media Server    A Microsoft proprietary network-streaming protocol serves to transfer unicast data in Windows Media Services (previously called NetShow Services). Microsoft Video 1    An early lossy video compression and decompression algorithm (codec) that was released with version 1.0 of Microsoft's Video for Windows in November 1992. Mid-Side    A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording. MIDI    Musical Instrument Digital Interface Mid Shot    Defines any camera perspective between long shot and closeup, viewing the subjects from a medium distance. MII    Portable, professional video component camera/recorder format, utilizing 1/2" metal particle videotape. Milliframe    0.129 inches: the standard measurement unit for a shot or camera angle. Mini-DIN    A family of multi-pin electrical connectors used in a variety of applications. Mini-DVI    A connector is used on certain Apple computers as a digital alternative to the Mini-VGA connector. Mini-VGA    A non-standard, proprietary alternative used on some laptops and other systems in place of the standard VGA connector, although most laptops use a standard VGA connector. Mini DisplayPort    A miniaturized version of the DisplayPort audio-visual digital interface. MiniDP    A miniaturized version of the DisplayPort audio-visual digital interface. Mirror Image    An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right. Mise-en-scène    The stage design and arrangement of actors in scenes for a theatre or film production, both in visual arts through storyboarding, visual theme, and cinematography, and in narrative storytelling through the direction. Mix    The result of combining audio signals from different sources, such as microphones, instruments, recordings, etc. Mix Cue Sheet    A sheet having several columns for notations of footage, fades. volume levels, and equalizations which are used in mixing sound tracks where each column usually represents one track. Mixing    A process used in post-production where additional recordings are mixed with original production sound to create the finished soundtrack. Mixing Modes    Algorithms used to determine how two layers are blended with each other. MJPEG    Motion JPEG MK3D    Matroska file extension for stereoscopic video. MKA    Matroska file extension for audio-only files. MKS    Matroska file extension for video subtitles only. MKV    Matroska file extension for video (which may or may not include subtitles and audio). MLP    Meridian Lossless Packing MMS    Microsoft Media Server MNG    Multiple-image Network Graphics Mobile Content    Any type of electronic media which is viewed or used on mobile phones, like ringtones, graphics, discount offers, games, movies, and GPS navigation. Mobile High-Definition Link    An industry standard for a mobile audio/video interface that allows the connection of smartphones, tablets, and other portable consumer electronics devices to high-definition televisions (HDTVs), audio receivers, and projectors. MOCAP    Motion capture Mode Dial    A rotary control dial used on a digital camera to change its settings or modes. Modem    A hardware device that converts data into a format suitable for a transmission medium so that it can be transmitted from one computer to another (historically along telephone wires). Modulation    A process that converts mutimedia information to an electrical or optical signal before it is transmitted. The reverse process (demodulation) converts the signal back to the original blend of audio, video, image and text. Modulation Depth     Moiré    An unwanted artifact created by the interference between a pattern on the object and the shape of the light sensors on the imaging device. Monaural    Sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position. Money Shot    A moving or stationary visual element of a film, video, television broadcast, or print publication that is disproportionately expensive to produce or is perceived as essential to the overall importance or revenue-generating potential of the work. Monitor    A screen device capable of accepting direct input from a video source. Monkey's Audio    An algorithm and file format for lossless audio data compression. Mono    Sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position. Monochromatic Light    A source of light whose output only has one wavelength. Monochrome    A device, process or media that uses only variants of a single color tone (hue). Black and white pictures are monochrome images. Monophonic    Sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position. Monopod    A single staff or pole used to help support cameras, binoculars, rifles or other precision instruments in the field. Monoscope    A special form of video camera tube which displayed a single still video image. Montage    The assembly of shots and the portrayal of action or ideas through the use of many short shots. Mood Lighting    Mood lighting is igniting or illumination, designed to create a temporary state of mind or feeling. Moore's Law    The observation that the number of transistors in dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years. Morph    A dissolve combined with a visual effect. MOS    Motion Omit Sound Mosaic    The name of a visual special effect where individual pixels in an image are blown up into larger blocks, giving the image a checkerboard effect. Most Significant Bit    The bit position in a binary number having the greatest value. Motif    A recurring image, sound, line, action or another element that makes a symbolic, allegorical, metaphoric or thematic point in a movie. Motion-compensated Frame Interpolation    A form of video processing in which intermediate animation frames are generated between existing ones by means of interpolation, in an attempt to make animation more fluid and to compensate for display motion blur. Motion Artifact    Visual interference caused by the difference between the frame rate of the camera and the motion of the object. The most common display of this is when filming a computer or television screen Motion Blur    The apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph or a sequence of frames, such as a film or animation. Motion Capture    The process of digitally recording an actor's movement in order to apply this movement to a computer-generated object. Motion Compensation    An algorithmic technique used to predict a frame in a video, given the previous and/or future frames by accounting for motion of the camera and/or objects in the video. Motion Control    The process of controlling the motion of the camera by a computer in order to obtain precise control over its movement. Motion Estimation    The process of determining motion vectors that describe the transformation from one 2D image to another; usually from adjacent frames in a video sequence. Motion Graphic Design    A subset of graphic design in that it uses graphic design principles in a filmmaking or video production context (or other temporally evolving visual media) through the use of animation or filmic techniques. Motion Graphics    Pieces of animation or digital footage which create the illusion of motion or rotation, and are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion Interpolation    A form of video processing in which intermediate animation frames are generated between existing ones by means of interpolation, in an attempt to make animation more fluid and to compensate for display motion blur. Motion JPEG    A video compression format in which each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is compressed separately as a JPEG image. Motion Omit Sound    Silent filming. Motion Parallax    The use of motion to gain different viewpoints and create a 3D-like representation. Motion Picture    A dramatic performance recorded as a moving image, whether on film, videotape or digital media. Motion Picture Film Scanner    A device that converts film into a high-resolution digital file. MOV    The filename extension for the QuickTime multimedia file format. Movie    A dramatic performance recorded as a moving image, whether on film, videotape or digital media. Movie Camera    A type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an image sensor or on a film. Moving-coil Microphone    Type of microphone that works like a loudspeaker in reverse, using a magnet and wire coil to convert sound waves into an electrical signal. Moving Dots    An artifact that occurs when the brightness information from the luma channel is incorrectly interpreted and applied to the YUV color space. Moving Picture Experts Group    The name of a working group that sets the standards for audio and video compression and transmission. Moving Picture Experts Group Audio Layer 3 Uniform Resource Locator    A computer file format for a multimedia playlist. MP    Megapixel MP1    MPEG-1 Audio Layer I MP2    MPEG-1 Audio Layer II MP@HL    Main Profile at High Level for HDTV MP@ML    Main Profile at Main Level MPC    Musepack MPEG    Moving Picture Experts Group MPEG-1    A group of picture blocks, usually four, which are analyzed during MPEG coding to give an estimate of the movement between frames MPEG-1 Audio Layer I    A deliberately simplified version of MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, created for applications where lower compression efficiency could be tolerated in return for a less complex algorithm that could be executed with simpler hardware requirements. MPEG-1 Audio Layer II    A lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3). MPEG-1 Part 2    The MPEG-1 standard covering video and is defined in ISO/IEC-11172-2. The design was heavily influenced by H.261. MPEG-2    A standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information". MPEG-2 Transport Stream    A container file format used for multiplexing audio, video and other streams. MPEG-4    A method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. MPEG-4 ALS    MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding    An extension to the MPEG-4 Part 3 audio standard to allow lossless audio compression. MPEG-4 AVC     The name of the most common video compression standard for high-definition digital video for resolutions up to 8K. Also known as MPEG-4 AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10. MPEG-4 Part 2    A video compression format developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). MPEG-4 Part 10     The name of the most common video compression standard for high-definition digital video for resolutions up to 8K. Also known as MPEG-4 AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10. MPEG-4 Visual    A video compression format developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). MPEG-7    A multimedia content description standard. MPEG-21    A Moving Picture Experts Group standard aiming at defining an open framework for multimedia applications. MPEG-DASH    An adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables media streaming by conventional HTTP web servers. MPEG-H Part 2    A video compression standard, designed as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10). MPEG IMX    A 2001 development of the Digital Betacam format. MPEG Splicing    he ability to cut into an MPEG bitstream for switching and editing, regardless of the type of frames (I, B, P). MPlayer    A free and open-source media player software. It is available for Linux, OS X, and Microsoft Windows. MR    Multifaceted reflector MS    Medium shot MS-CRAM    Microsoft Video 1 MSB    Most significant bit MSE    Media Source Extensions MSU Lossless Video Codec    A video codec developed by the Graphics & Media Lab Video Group of Moscow State University. MTR    Multitrack Multicam    A method of filmmaking and video production involving multiple cameras. Multicast    Data flow from a single source to multiple destinations. Multicast Backbone    An experimental backbone and virtual network built on top of the Internet for carrying IP multicast traffic on the Internet. Multichannel Audio Digital Interface    An Audio Engineering Society (AES) standard that defines the data format and electrical characteristics of an interface that carries multiple channels of digital audio. Multichannel Audio Serial Port    A communication peripheral found in Texas Instruments family of digital signal processors (DSPs) and Microcontroller Units (MCUs). Multicore    A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals Multifaceted Reflector    A component used to shape the output of a light bulb into a directional beam. Multimedia    Content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video, and interactive content. Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service    A point-to-multipoint interface specification for existing and upcoming 3GPP cellular networks, which is designed to provide efficient delivery of broadcast and multicast services, both within a cell as well as within the core network. Multipath Interference    A phenomenon in the physics of waves whereby a wave from a source travels to a detector via two or more paths and, under the right condition, the two (or more) components of the wave interfere. Multiple-camera Setup    A method of filmmaking and video production involving multiple cameras. Multiple-image Network Graphics    A graphics file format, published in 2001, for animated images. Multiple Exposure    The superimposition of two or more exposures to create a single image, and double exposure has a corresponding meaning in respect of two images. Multiple Sub-Nyquist Sampling Encoding    An early analog 1125-line high-definition television system. Multiplexer    Device for mixing television signals to a single video recorder. Multiplexing    A method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium. Multipoint    A term used by network designers to describe network links that have many possible endpoints. Multiscan Monitor    A monitor which synchronizes to different video signal sync frequencies, allowing its use with various computer video outputs. Multisync Monitor    A monitor which synchronizes to different video signal sync frequencies, allowing its use with various computer video outputs. Multitrack    An audio tape recorder capable of handling more than two tracks of information separately. Musa Connector    A type of coaxial ("coax") connector, originally developed for the manual switching of radio signals. MUSE    Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding Musepack    An open-source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160–180 (manual set allows bitrates up to 320) kbit/s. Musical Instrument Digital Interface    A protocol that allows synthesizers and computers to communicate with and/or control each other in real time to produce sound. MUSICAM    A lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3). Music And Effects    A file with music and effects split into separate stems for foreign language dubbing. Music Sequencer    The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives, stores and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence. Music Video    A short film that integrates a song with imagery, and is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Music Visualization    Computer-generated animated imagery based on a piece of music. MUX    Multiplexer Muxing    A method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium. MXF    Material Exchange Format
N
Nanosecond    One billionth of a second. An indication of the precision required in the timing of video signals. Narrative    An account of a series of related events, experiences, or the like, whether true (episode, vignette, travelogue, memoir, autobiography, biography) or fictitious (fairy tale, fable, story, epic, legend, novel). Narrative Arc    The parabolic shift in polar attitudes of a character from point A to point B during the course of a story. Narrow-band Visual Telephone Systems And Terminal Equipment    A umbrella Recommendation by the ITU-T for running Multimedia (Audio/Video/Data) over ISDN based networks. Narrowcast Media    Media that reaches a group of people much smaller than traditional media outlets. National Electrical Code    A publication by the National Fire Protection Association, which establishes the requirements for fireproof electrical installations. National Electrical Manufacturers Association    The largest trade association of electrical equipment manufacturers in the United States National Institute Of Standards And Technology    A physical sciences laboratory and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce with a mission to promote innovation and industrial competitiveness. Natural Color    A color film process that actually filmed color images, rather than a color-tinted or colorized movie of the early days of cinema. Natural Light    Planetary illumination -- from sun, moon, stars -- be it indoors or out. Has higher color temperature than artificial light, and thus more bluish qualities. Natural Wipe    A transition technique accomplished by an element within the mise-en-scène rather than by a laboratory process. N Connector    A threaded, weatherproof, medium-size RF connector used to join coaxial cables. ND    Neutral Density NDF    Non-Drop Frame Near Video On Demand    A pay-per-view consumer video technique used by multi-channel broadcasters using high-bandwidth distribution mechanisms such as satellite and cable television. NEC    National Electrical Code Negative    An image those tonal values which are the opposite (black & white) or complement (color) of those in the original subject. Negative Conforming    The process of cutting motion picture negative to match precisely the final edit as specified by the film editor. Negative Cutter    A person who performs negative cutting: the physically cuts the film negative according to the cut list and then splices the film together in the desired order, ready for the final print. Negative Cutting    The process of cutting motion picture negative to match precisely the final edit as specified by the film editor. Negative Matching    The process of cutting motion picture negative to match precisely the final edit as specified by the film editor. NEMA    National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEP    Noise-equivalent power NetShow    Microsoft's original framework for Internet network broadcasting, intended to compete with RealNetworks RealMedia & Vivo. NETVC    A standardization project for a royalty-free video codec hosted by the IETF. Neutral-density Filter    A filter that reduces the amount of light entering the camera lens by modify the intensity of all wavelengths of light equally. Neutral Density    Colorless filters that reduce the amount of light in controlled degrees. NFPA 70    A publication by the National Fire Protection Association, which establishes the requirements for fireproof electrical installations. NG    No Good NHD    A display resolution of 640 × 360 pixels. NiCad    Lightweight camcorder battery type designed to maintain power longer than traditional lead-acid batteries. NICD    Nickel–cadmium battery Nickel Metal Hydride    A type of battery used in some lower-end cameras. Although cheaper than Lithium ion batteries, they tend to lose charge when not in use and don’t provide as much overall power. Nickel–cadmium Battery    Lightweight camcorder battery type designed to maintain power longer than traditional lead-acid batteries. Nikon 1-mount    A type of interchangeable lens mount developed by Nikon for its Nikon CX format mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras. Nikon Z-mount    An interchangeable lens mount developed by Nikon for its full-frame mirrorless digital cameras. NIMH    Nickel Metal Hydride NLE    Nonlinear editing Noddy    A type of camera reaction shot used in recorded news or current affairs interviews. No Good    Commonly seen on camera and editor reports to indicate a particular take is unusable. Noir    Usually refers to the classic black and white film noir style used in detective mysteries, typically employing hard lighting and dark, low key lighting. Noise    In analog video, a random flicker of dots or snow-like patterns resulting from electronic and radiated electromagnetic interferences accidentally picked up by the antenna. Noise-equivalent Power    A measure of the sensitivity of a photodetector or detector system. Noise Floor    The noise floor is the minimum signal a receiver can detect in a communications channel when noise is defined as any unwanted signal that interferes with the desired signal. Noise Gate    An electronic process used to reduce noise levels in audio and video. In the video, the most effective noise reduction is accomplished by digitizing the video signal and carrying out a computerized pixel by pixel analysis of the data. Noise Reduction    The process of removing noise from a signal. Non-Drop Frame    A type of SMPTE time code that continuously counts a full 30 frames per second. As a result, non-drop-fame time code does not exactly match real-time. Non-synchronous Sound    Sound that is indigenous to the action but not precisely synchronized with the imagery on screen. Nonanamorphic Widescreen    A film process that achieves the wide-screen effect \without optically compressing the image or requiring the use of special projection techniques. Noninterlaced Scanning    A format of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. Noninterlaced Video    Process of scanning complete frames in one pass, painting every line on the screen, yielding higher picture quality than that of interlaced video. Most computers produce a noninterlaced video signal; NTSC is interlaced. Nonlinear    A system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input. Nonlinear Editing    A form of audio, video, and image editing in which the original content is not modified in the course of editing. Nonlinearity    The amount by which a measured video signal output differs from a standard video signal output. Nonlinear Perceptual Brightness    The achromatic (black and white) portion of the image. Normal Lens    A camera lens that reproduces a field of view that appears natural to a human observer. Nose Room    The distance between the subject and the edge of the frame in the direction the subject is looking. Notch    A notch filter is a band-stop filter with a narrow stopband (high Q factor). NR    Noise reduction NS    Nanosecond NSV    Nullsoft Streaming Video NTSC    The analog television color system that was used in North America from 1954 and until digital conversion, was used in most of the Americas. Set to 525 lines per frame, 29.97 frames per second. NTSC-J    The 525-line analog television and video display standard used in Japan until 2011. Nullsoft Streaming Video    A media container designed for streaming video content over the Internet. NUT    A container format under construction by MPlayer, FFmpeg and Libav developers. NVOD    Near video on demand Nyquist Frequency    Half of the sampling rate of a discrete signal processing system.
O
Obie    A light mounted by the side of the camera, to provide direct light onto a subject's face, with the aim of reducing the appearance of blemishes and wrinkles. Oblique Angle    A type of shot that produces a viewpoint akin to tilting one's head to the side. OC-1    OC-1 is a SONET line with transmission speeds of up to 51.84 Mbit/s (payload: 50.112 Mbit/s; overhead: 1.728 Mbit/s) using optical fiber. OC-3    OC-3 is a network line with a transmission data rate of up to 155.52 Mbit/s (payload: 148.608 Mbit/s; overhead: 6.912 Mbit/s, including path overhead) using fiber optics. OC-3c    OC-3c ("c" stands for "concatenated") concatenates three STS-1 (OC-1) frames into a single OC-3 look-alike stream. OC-12    OC-12 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 622.08 Mbit/s (payload: 601.344 Mbit/s; overhead: 20.736 Mbit/s). OC-24    OC-24 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 1244.16 Mbit/s (payload: 1202.208 Mbit/s (1.202208 Gbit/s); overhead: 41.472 Mbit/s). OC-48    OC-48 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 2488.32 Mbit/s (payload: 2405.376 Mbit/s (2.405376 Gbit/s); overhead: 82.944 Mbit/s). OC-192    OC-192 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 9953.28 Mbit/s (payload: 9510.912 Mbit/s (9.510912 Gbit/s); overhead: 442.368 Mbit/s). OC-768    OC-768 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 39,813.12 Mbit/s (payload: 38,486.016 Mbit/s (38.486016 Gbit/s); overhead: 1,327.104 Mbit/s (1.327104 Gbit/s)). OC-1920    OC-1920 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 99,532.8 Mbit/s (99.5328 Gbit/s). OC-3840    OC-3840 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 200 Gbit/s. Occlusive    A pulmonic consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. Occultation    A visual effect that is the result of one object hidden by another when the latter passes between it and the observer. OCPD    Circuit breaker Octave    The interval between two sounds having a basic frequency ratio of 2 to 1. OD    Optical disc OFDM    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing Off-book    When an actor has completely memorized his or her lines and is no longer in need of the script. Offline    The creative editing process which uses copies of the camera tapes on a typically "cuts only" inexpensive editing system. OggConvert    A free and open-source transcoder for digital audio and video files of various types into the free Ogg Vorbis audio format, and the Theora, VP8, and Dirac video formats. Ogg Vorbis    An audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy audio compression. OGM    A hack on Ogg that allowed embedding of video from the Microsoft DirectShow framework into an Ogg-based wrapper. OLED    Organic light-emitting diode OMF    Open Media Framework Omnidirectional    Microphone pickup pattern whereby sound is absorbed equally from all directions. On-screen Display    An image superimposed on a screen picture. One-shot    A full-length movie filmed in one long take by a single camera, or manufactured to give the impression it was. One-shot Cinematography    A long video sequence shot in one long take by a single camera or manufactured to give the impression that it was. One-take    A long video sequence shot in one long take by a single camera or manufactured to give the impression that it was. One Light    Telecine transfer in which the film is color timed on the first shot and the settings are then applied to the rest of the reel. One Liner Schedule    Shorter version of the shooting schedule. One Minute Video    A video exactly one minute in length, containing no camera movements (panning, tilting, etc.) or editing, and making use of original sound. Oner    A long video sequence shot in one long take by a single camera or manufactured to give the impression that it was. Online    The final technical editing process which uses the original camera tapes to repeat all decisions made in the offline editing process. Opacity    The ratio of the amount of light falling on a surface to the amount of light which is transmitted. Opaque    A material that completely blocks visible light. OPENAL    Open Audio Library Open Audio Library    A cross-platform audio application programming interface (API). OpenCable    A set of hardware and software specifications under development in the United States by CableLabs to "define the next-generation digital consumer device" for the cable television industry. OPENGL    Open Graphics Library Open Graphics Library    A cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics. Opening Credits    Titles shown at the very beginning of a movie, listing the most important members of the production. OpenLDI    A high-bandwidth digital-video interface standard for connecting graphics/video processors to flat panel LCD monitors. Open Matte    A filming technique that involves matting out the top and bottom of the film frame in the movie projector (known as a soft matte) for the widescreen theatrical release and then scanning the film without a matte (at Academy ratio) for a full-screen home video release. Open Media Framework    A file format intended for transferring media between different software applications on different platforms. Operating System    System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. Opposite Colors    Pairs of colors that cancel each other and produce a grayscale color when combined or mixed. Optical Carrier Transmission Rates    Optical Carrier transmission rates are a standardized set of specifications of transmission bandwidth for digital signals that can be carried on Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) fiber-optic networks. Optical Convergence    The angle formed between focused rays of light. Optical Diffuser    Material that alters the quality of light passing through in order to produce lighting with less noticeable shadows. Optical Disc    A flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium ) on one of its flat surfaces. Optical Effect    The process of combining visual elements from separate sources into single images. Optical Fiber     Thin glass filaments in a jacket sending light over distances without loss. Optical Printer    A printer in which an image of the original is transferred to raw film stock by means of light and a lens system. Opticals    Shots composited in an optical printer to be output to film. Optical Sound    An analog soundtrack printed on film that takes the form of a varying sound wave. Optical Videodisc    A laser optical (reflective) video recording system that uses an analog technique called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to represent video information on a grooveless, smooth, round plastic disc. Optical Zoom    The lens’ ability to change the focal length either closer to or further from a central subject. OpTrans    Translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera, theatre, or other musical performances. Opus    A lossy audio coding format designed to efficiently code speech and general audio in a single format, while remaining low-latency enough for real-time interactive communication and low-complexity enough for low-end embedded processors. Organic Light-emitting Diode    A light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of an organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. Orthicon    An electron tube used in early video cameras to capture moving images. Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing    A type of digital modulation, a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. Orthogonal Projection    A means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions using parallel projection. Orthographic Projection    A means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions using parallel projection. OS    Operating system OTT    Over-the-top media service Out Of Continuity    Out of chronological or linear order. Out Point    The timecode position at which a clip ends. Outtake    Footage not to be included in final production. Over-the-top Media Service    A streaming media service offered directly to viewers via the Internet. Overcranking    The process of speeding the frame rate of a camera up, so that when the captured pictures are played at the normal frame rate the action appears to be in slow motion. Overlapping Action    The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. Overlay    Any technique used to display a video window on a computer display while bypassing the chain of CPU to graphics card to computer monitor. Oversampling    The process of sampling a signal at a sampling frequency significantly higher than the Nyquist rate. Overscan    Video images generally exceed the size of the physical screen. Over The Shoulder    Shots that are framed with an emphasis on a particular character’s perspective. This shot is used in dialogue scenes to show conversations between two people. Overwrite Edit    An editing method in which existing clips are overwritten when adding a new clip onto a timeline. Oxide    The magnetic coating on video and audio tapes that stores picture and sound information.
P
P&S    Point-and-shoot camera P2    A professional digital recording solid-state memory storage media format introduced by Panasonic in 2004, and specially tailored to electronic news-gathering (ENG) applications. P2MP    Point-to-multipoint Packed PCM    The standard lossless compression method for DVD-Audio content and typically provides about 1.5:1 compression on most music material. Packet Identifier    Each table or elementary stream in a transport stream is identified by a 13-bit packet identifier. PAL    Phase Alternating Line PAL-M    The analog TV system used in Brazil since 1972. Palette    A finite set of colors in no particular order. Palette Shifting    A computer graphic technique used to simulate animation on an image. Pan And Scan    The process of formatting a wide-screen film onto video by selecting the area of the film frame to show in order to accommodate the different aspect ratios of wide-screen film and television. Panning    Fixed, lateral movements made with a camera. Pantone    A company headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey, best known for its Pantone Matching System (PMS), a proprietary color space used in a variety of industries notably graphic design, fashion design, etc. PAR    Pixel Aspect Ratio Parallax    The use of motion to gain different viewpoints and create a 3D-like representation. Parallel Communication    A method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously. Parallel Editing    A technique used in movies to establish action happening at the same time. Parfocal Lens    A mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens. Parity Bit    A method of verifying the accuracy of transmitted or recorded data. A bit added to a string of binary code to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the string is even or odd. Partial Sub-pixel Defect    A defective pixel resulting from a manufacturing defect. Patch Panel    A unit used to connect and route signals to and from different, external devices. PCM    Pulse-code modulation PCX    PiCture eXchange PDC    Programme Delivery Control PDP    Plasma display Peak Signal-to-noise Ratio    An engineering term for the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of corrupting noise that affects the fidelity of its representation. Pedestal    The voltage level produced at the end of each horizontal picture line which separates the portion of the video signal containing the picture information from the portion containing the synchronizing information. Peg     A standard wooden clothespin that is used to attach gels to barn doors and other hot items. Perceptual Quantizer    A transfer function that allows for HDR display by replacing the gamma curve used in SDR. PERF    Film perforations Pericentric    A lens system where the entrance pupil is located in front of the lens, in the space where an object could be located. Period    In scriptwriting, a historical time and place that serves as the setting or “special world” of a story. Periodic Noise    An image affected by periodic noise will look like a repeating pattern has been added on top of the original image. Persistence Of Vision    The optical illusion that occurs when visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays of light proceeding from it has ceased to enter the eye. Perspective    The composition of a point of view created by placing the camera directly opposite the horizon line and vanishing point. Perspective Control    A procedure for composing or editing photographs to better conform with the commonly accepted distortions in constructed perspective. Perspective Distortion    A warping or transformation of an object or area due to the relative scale of the surrounding features. Petzval Field Curvature    The optical aberration in which a flat object normal to the optical axis (or a non-flat object past the hyperfocal distance) cannot be brought properly into focus on a flat image plane. PFD    Professional Disc Phantom Power    A method of remotely powering the preamplifier or impedance converter which is buitlt into many microphones by sending a voltage along the audio cable. Phase    The timing relationship between two signals Phase Alternating Line    An analog standard used for encoding color television signals. PAL is the equivalent of NTSC and SECAM. Phase Distortion    A shifting of output voltage relative to input by an amount which is disproportional to frequency. Phase Distortion is undetectable until it is amplified. Phase Error    A change in the color subcarrier signal which moves its timing out of phase, i.e., it occurs at a different instant from the original signal. Phase Jitter    The deviation between the actual timing of a signal and its expected or ideal values. Phase Noise    A change in the color subcarrier signal which moves its timing out of phase, i.e., it occurs at a different instant from the original signal. Phase Shift    The displacement of a waveform in time. Phenakistiscope    First widespread animation device that created a fluent illusion of motion. Philips PM5544    A television pattern generator used to provide a television station with a complex test card. Phi Phenomenon    An apparent motion observed when two nearby optical stimuli are presented in rapid alternation. Phone Connector    A sturdy male connector compatible with audio accessories, particularly for insertion of microphone and headphone cables. Phone Plug    A sturdy male connector compatible with audio accessories, particularly for insertion of microphone and headphone cables. Phonofilm    An optical sound-on-film system developed in the early 1920s. Phono Plug    A type of connector used on all consumer VCRs and camcorders to carry the standard composite* video and audio signals. Phonotrope    The technique of creating animation in a 'live' environment using the confluence of the frame rate of a live-action camera and the revolutions of a constantly rotating disc. Photoconductivity    An optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation. Photocurrent    The electric current through a photosensitive device, such as a photodiode, as the result of exposure to radiant power. Photodetector    Sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. Photodiode    A semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current. Photographic Film    A strip or sheet of transparent film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. Photometry    The measurement of light and its properties. Photoresistor    A passive component that decreases resistance with respect to receiving light on the component's sensitive surface. Physical Linear-space Brightness    A measurement of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. Pick-up    Reshooting a portion of a scene, the rest of which was acceptably filmed in a previous take. Pick-up Shot    Reshooting a portion of a scene, the rest of which was acceptably filmed in a previous take. Pickup    A video camera's image sensing element, either CCD (charge coupled device) or MOS (metal oxide semiconductor); converts light to electrical energy. A microphone's sound reception. Pickup Pattern    Defines a microphone's response to sounds arriving from various directions or angles. PiCture EXchange    An image file format developed by the now-defunct ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia, United States. Picture In Picture    A digital special effect in which one video image is inserted within another allowing several images to share a single screen. Picture Line-up Generation Equipment    The greyscale test patterns used in order to adjust the black level and contrast of the picture monitor. Picture Profile    The four dimensions of in-camera picture settings: sharpness, contrast, saturation, and color tone. Picture Tube    An electronic vacuum tube used to display images on a phosphorescent screen. PID    Packet identifier Piezoelectric Microphone    A type of microphone that detects sound through physical contact. Piezo Microphone    A type of microphone that detects sound through physical contact. Piku-Piku    Stereoscopy in which both images of a stereogram are animated. Pillarbox    The black bars displayed at the sides when a 4:3 image is shown in widescreen. Pilottone    A sine wave signal, recorded by various field audio recorders at a known frequency, which is used to resolve the tape speed on playback to retain sync with film camera footage. Obsolete. Pilot Tone    A sine wave signal, recorded by various field audio recorders at a known frequency, which is used to resolve the tape speed on playback to retain sync with film camera footage. Obsolete. Pinch Roller    In a videotape, a rubberized, free-spinning wheel typically used to press the magnetic tape against a capstan shaft. Pink Noise    A sound signal that has an equal amount of energy per octave or fraction of an octave. PIP    Picture In Picture Pipe Clamp    A clamp for attaching a large piece of hardware to a pipe or batten. Pitch    The frequency of audible sound Pitch Control    Increasing or decreasing tape speed to match the musical pitch of the playback. Pixel    The smallest addressable element on a screen or display device. Pixel Aspect Ratio    A mathematical ratio that describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel. Pixelation    The display of large, blocky pixels in an image caused by over-enlarging it. Pixel Density    Measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digitizing device such as a camera or image scanner. Pixels Per Centimetre    Measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digitizing device such as a camera or image scanner. Pixels Per Inch    Measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digitizing device such as a camera or image scanner. Plane Reflector    A large white card made of foam or poster board used to reflect soft light. Plasma Display    A type of flat panel display that uses small cells containing plasma: ionized gas that responds to electric fields. Plasma Screen    Display screens comprised of hundreds of thousands of tiny gas-filled cells sandwiched between two sheets of glass. Plate Shot    An empty shot of a background with no foreground elements, often for removing certain foreground elements from the scene such as light stands, wires and rigging in the visual effects stage. Playback    Videotaped material viewed and heard as recorded, facilitated by camcorder or VCR. PlayReady     Copy prevention technology that includes encryption, output prevention, and DRM. Plenoptic Camera    A camera that captures information about the light field emanating from a scene. Plosive    A pulmonic consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. Plot Action    In scriptwriting: refers to the physical actions and story points that propel a story through to a climax and resolution. Plot Device    Any technique in a narrative used to move the plot forward. Plot Pay-off    In scriptwriting: the consequence or outcome of a plot point or story element that is set-up earlier in a screenplay. Plot Point    In scriptwriting: the consequence or outcome of a plot point or story element that is set-up earlier in a screenplay. PLS    A computer file format for a multimedia playlist. PLUGE    Picture line-up generation equipment Plugin    Third-party software created to add a new feature to an application, such as Premiere or After Effects. PM    Production manager PMS    Pantone Point-and-shoot Camera    Still camera designed primarily for simple operation. Point-of-view Shot    A short film scene that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera). Point-to-multipoint    Fixed wireless data communications for Internet or voice over IP via radio or microwave frequencies in the gigahertz range. Point Of View    A shot that shows the perspective from a character or object’s position in the scene's setting. Point Spread Function    A mathematical function that describes the response of an imaging system to a point source or point object. Polarization    A property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations. Polarizing Filter    A piece of glass that fits over the front end of a lens to change the way that your camera sees and treats light, while ultimately cutting down on glare. Pop Filter    A noise protection filter for microphones, typically used in a recording studio. It serves to reduce or eliminate popping sounds caused by the mechanical impact of fast-moving air on the microphone during recorded speech and singing. Pop Screen    A noise protection filter for microphones, typically used in a recording studio. It serves to reduce or eliminate popping sounds caused by the mechanical impact of fast-moving air on the microphone during recorded speech and singing. Pop Shield    A noise protection filter for microphones, typically used in a recording studio. It serves to reduce or eliminate popping sounds caused by the mechanical impact of fast-moving air on the microphone during recorded speech and singing. PortAudio    An open-source computer library for audio playback and recording. Positive Print    A film print created from a negative that is suitable for projection. Post-classical Editing    A style of editing characterized by shorter shot lengths, faster cuts between shots, and containing more jump shots and close-ups than classical editing characteristic of films prior to the 1960s. Post-Production    The period in a project's development that takes place after the picture is delivered, or "after the production." Posterization    Electronic special effect transforming a normal video image into a collage of flattened single-colored areas, without graduations of color and brightness. POV    Point of view POV SHOT    Point-of-view shot Power Dividers    A splitter that divides a power line into two parts. Power Splitters    A splitter that divides a power line into two parts. PQ    Perceptual quantizer PR    Production report Practical Effect    A special effect produced physically, without computer-generated imagery or other post production techniques. Practical Light    A light that appears in a scene. Practical Source    Any light source that is part of the scene itself and does not need to be hidden from the camera. Pre-blacked    Tapes that have been pre-recorded with blank data (a black screen and timecode) before they are used. Pre-credits    A narrative tactic where the video starts by jumping directly into a story, before any title sequence or opening credits is displayed. Pre-production    The vital phase of production in which the script, budget, locations, actors, and props are planned. Pre-rendering    The visualizing of complex scenes in a movie before filming. Pre-roll    Ads which appear before a video and Video On Demand actually refers to a video which can be loaded at any time. Preamp    An electronic device that boosts extremely weak signal voltages, such as those from microphones or mag heads, to a level that is usable by power amplifiers. Preamplifier    An electronic device that boosts extremely weak signal voltages, such as those from microphones or mag heads, to a level that is usable by power amplifiers. Precision Time Protocol    A protocol used to synchronize clocks throughout a computer network. Predicted Picture    A P‑frame (Predicted picture) holds only the changes in the image from the previous frame. P‑frames can use data from previous frames to decompress and are more compressible than I‑frames. Prescoring    Recording of music or other sound prior to the shooting of the picture which is to accompany it. The most common usage is in animated film. Presence    The sound in a room. It is recorded and intercut with dialogue to smooth out any editing points. Pressure Zone Microphone    A small omnidirectional condenser mic capsule positioned near or flush with a boundary. Preview Bus    A processor function allowing the operator to select any incoming video source for viewing prior to actual use. Typically, each signal can be previewed on its own monitor. Previs    The visualizing of complex scenes in a movie before filming. Previsualization    The visualizing of complex scenes in a movie before filming. Primary Color    The basic colors used in TV and video systems of red, green and blue. Prime Lens    A lens with a fixed focal length. Principal Photography    The main photography of a film and the time period during which it takes place. Print    A version of a film intended for projection. Prism Shutter    A device used on many film viewers, editing machines, and some high-speed cameras, consisting of a rotating prism of four or more sides through which the viewer light passes as film is pulled continuously through it. Prizma    A color television system in which the primary color information is transmitted in successive images and which relies on the human vision system to fuse the successive images into a color picture. ProcAmp    A device used to alter, change or clean video or audio signal components or parameters in realtime. Processing Amplifier    A device used to alter, change or clean video or audio signal components or parameters in realtime. Process Photography    A technique where the actor stands in front of a screen and the background is projected onto the screen behind them. Process Shot    A shot that will be composited from two other shots. The background part of this process is called a 'plate'. Producer    The person who oversees film production. Production    The actual filming and creation of the raw elements as required by the script. Production Board    A filmmaking term for cardboard or wooden chart displaying color-coded strips of paper, each containing information about a scene in the film's shooting script. Production Manager    The main supervisor of the crew in charge of keeping a film project on time and on budget. Production Report    A filmmaking term for the form filled out each day of production of a movie or television show to summarize what occurred that day. Production Schedule    Project plan of how the production budget will be spent over a given timescale, for every phase of a business project. Production Sound    Recording and/or mixing sound on location during the film or video shoot. Professional Disc    A digital recording optical disc format introduced by Sony in 2003 primarily for XDCAM, its tapeless camcorder system. Program And System Information Protocol    Program-specific information for carrying metadata about each channel in the broadcast MPEG transport stream of a television station. Program Cue Interrupt    A monitoring and cueing system used in video production and broadcasting for one-way communication from a director to an on-air talent or a remote location. Programme Delivery Control    The specification for the Teletext signals sent as hidden codes for program start and end. Progressive Capture    A format of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. Progressive Scan    A way to store and transmit images that draws all the lines in each frame in sequence. Compare to other techniques such as interlacing. Progressive Scanning    A format of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. Progressive Segmented Frame    A scheme designed to acquire, store, modify and distribute progressive-scan video using interlaced equipment. Projectionist    A person who operates a movie projector. Prolepsis    A scene that temporarily takes the narrative forward in time from the current point of the story in literature, film, television and other media. Prop    Objects used either in decorating a set or by talent. ProPhoto RGB    A large gamut color space for use with photographic output in mind. Prosumer    A person who consumes and produces a product. Protagonist    The main character of a story. Protection Master    A high-quality copy of the master tape. Protocol    A system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. Pseudo-solarization    Special effect in which the lightest and darkest values of a picture are made dark while the middle tones become light. PSF    Progressive segmented frame PSIP    Program and System Information Protocol PSNR    Peak signal-to-noise ratio Psychoacoustics    The branch of science studying the psychological responses associated with sound (including noise, speech, and music). Psychological Time    The use of filming devices that, in the continuity of a motion-picture narrative, suggest not chronological time but time as it is perceived by a character's mind. PTP    Precision Time Protocol Pull Back Shot    A shot where the camera physical moves away or zooms out from the subject to reveal the full context of the scene. Pulse-code Modulation    A method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. PulseAudio    A network-capable sound server program distributed via the freedesktop.org project. Punch In    Inserting audio in a track by playing up to a chosen point and switching the analog device from playback to record mode. Punky C-Stand    A 20" C-Stand with a smaller base and footprint than the standard 20" size. PureVideo    Nvidia's hardware SIP core that performs video decoding. Push In Shot    The opposite of a pull back shot; a shot in which the camera moves towards or zooms into an object. Push Video On Demand    So-named because the provider "pushes" the content out to the viewer's set-top box without the viewer having requested the content. PVOD    Push video on demand Péritel    An audio/video connector used in consumer equipment, especially in Europe. P‑frame    A P‑frame (Predicted picture) holds only the changes in the image from the previous frame. P‑frames can use data from previous frames to decompress and are more compressible than I‑frames. P‑frames    In the field of video compression, a video frame is compressed using different algorithms with different advantages and disadvantages, centered mainly around the amount of data compression.
Q
QAM    Quadrature amplitude modulation QHD    A display resolution of 960 × 540 pixels. QHD+    A resolution of 3200 × 1800 pixels. QPEL    Quarter-pixel motion QPSK    Quantization QQVGA    A resolution of 160 × 120 or 120 × 160 pixels. QSXGA    Quad Super Extended Graphics Array QT    QuickTime Qt    Filename extension for QuickTime File Format. QTFF    QuickTime File Format Quad Extended Graphics Array    A resolution of 2048 × 1536 pixels. Quad HD    A display resolution of 2560 × 1440 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio. Quadraphonic    Sound reproduction that uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another. Quadraplex    The first practical and commercially successful analog recording video tape format. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation    A family of digital modulation methods and a related family of analog modulation methods widely used in modern telecommunications to transmit information. Quadruplex Videotape    The first practical and commercially successful analog recording video tape format. Quad Super Extended Graphics Array    A display resolution of 2560 × 2048 pixels with a 5:4 aspect ratio. Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array    A display standard that can support a resolution up to 3200 × 2400 pixels, assuming a 4:3 aspect ratio. Quad Wide Extended Graphics Array    A resolution of 2048 × 1152 pixels. Quantization    A lossy compression technique achieved by compressing a range of values to a single quantum value. Quantization Noise    The noise caused by quantizing the pixels of a sensed image to a number of discrete levels is known as quantization noise. Quantum Dot Display    A display device that uses quantum dots (QD), semiconductor nanocrystals which can produce pure monochromatic red, green, and blue light. Quarter-pixel Motion    In video compression: the use of a quarter of the distance between pixels as the motion vector precision for motion estimation and motion compensation. Quarter Inch    A medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. Quarter VGA    A resolution of 320 × 240 pixels. Quartz    Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. Quartz-halogen    Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. Quartz Compositor    The display server (and at the same time the compositing window manager) in macOS. Quartz Iodine Lamp    Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. QuickTime    Cross-platform video compression software developed by Apple and used extensively on the Macintosh platform. QuickTime Animation    A video compression format and codec created by Apple Computer to enable playback of RGB video in real-time without expensive hardware. QuickTime File Format    A computer file format used natively by the QuickTime framework. QuickTime RLE    A video compression format and codec created by Apple Computer to enable playback of RGB video in real-time without expensive hardware. QUXGA    Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array QVGA    A resolution of 320 × 240 pixels. QWXGA    Quad Wide Extended Graphics Array QXGA    Quad Extended Graphics Array
R
Rack    A standardized storage area for computer servers and other equipment. Rack Focus    Shifting focus between subjects in the background and foreground so a viewer’s attention moves from subject to subject as the focus shifts. Racking Focus    Shifting focus between subjects in the background and foreground so a viewer’s attention moves from subject to subject as the focus shifts. Radiant Flux    The radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted, or received, per unit time. Radiant Power    The radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted, or received, per unit time. Radio Frequency    Describes the radio signal band of the electromagnetic spectrum (about 30 MHz to 300 GHz). RAID    Redundant Array of Independent Disks RAM    Random-access memory Random-access Memory    A form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code. Rapid Rectilinear    A lens that is symmetrical about its aperture stop with four elements in two groups. Raster    The pattern of parallel horizontal scanning lines, traced by a video monitor's electron beam, making up a video image. Raster Image    The 2-D array of pixels representing video and graphics. Rasterization    The task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (a series of pixels, dots, or lines, which, when displayed together, create the image which was represented via shapes). Raster Scan    The rectangular pattern of image capture and reconstruction in television. RAW    Raw image format Raw Footage    Unedited, original unprocessed material as originally filmed by a camera. Raw Image Format    A proprietary file format containing the entire unprocessed information captured by the sensors.. RCA Connector    A type of connector used on all consumer VCRs and camcorders to carry the standard composite* video and audio signals. RCTC    Rewritable consumer timecode RC Timecode    A time code system, available on 8mm and Hi-8 formats only. RDT    Real Data Transport Re-recording    The process of mixing all edited music, effects and dialog tracks of a film or video production to mono, stereo, multichannel or whatever audio format is desired for the final print master. Reaction Shot    A filmmaking technique where the camera cuts away from a character or event to show the reaction of that character or event. Read-only Memory    A type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Real-Time Streaming Protocol    A network control protocol designed for use in entertainment and communications systems to control streaming media servers. Real-time Transport Protocol    A network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RealAudio    A proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks and first released in April 1995. Real Data Transport    A proprietary transport protocol for the actual audio-video data, developed by RealNetworks in the 1990s. RealMedia    A proprietary multimedia container format created by RealNetworks. RealMedia Variable Bitrate    A variable bitrate extension of the RealMedia multimedia digital container format developed by RealNetworks. RealPlayer    A cross-platform media player app, developed by RealNetworks. The media player is compatible with numerous container file formats of the multimedia realm, including MP3, MP4, QuickTime File Format, Windows Media format, and the proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo formats. Real Time    Occurring immediately, without delay for rendering. RealVideo    A suite of proprietary video compression formats developed by RealNetworks – the specific format changes with the version. Rear Projection    A technique where the actor stands in front of a screen and the background is projected onto the screen behind them. Rec. 709    A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. Rec. 2020    Standard defining various values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international program exchange. Rec. 2100    The ITU-R Recommendation that defines the parameters of high-dynamic-range television. Reciprocity    The inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of light that determines the reaction of light-sensitive material. Recording Engineer    A professional who helps to produce the audio portion of a recording or a live performance. Rectilinear Lens    A photographic lens that yields images where straight features of the object appear straight. Red Book    The format standard for audio compact discs (CDs) Red Green Blue    Video signal transmission system that differentiates and processes all color information in separate red, green, and blue component. Redhead    An open-faced 1K light. Red Herring    In scriptwriting, a red herring is a false lead, assumed outcome or obvious solution that a writer plants in a story to fool the audience from guessing the real outcome. Reduction Printing    A copy of a film done with an optical printer to a smaller size or gauge than the original. Redundant Array Of Independent Disks    A data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both. Reel    A strip of film wound upon a disc for attaching to a projector. Reference Frame    Frames of a compressed video that are used to define future frames. Reference Tone    A sound meant to be used by audio engineers in order to adjust the playback equipment so that the accompanying media is at a comfortable volume for the audience. Reference White    A set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction. Reflectance    The effectiveness of a surface of a material in reflecting radiant energy. Reflected Light    Light which emanates indirectly from a light source, measured from the object it strikes to the source. Reflector    Lighting accessory helpful for spreading light as well as filling in shadows. Refresh Rate    The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. Regular Reflection    A term used to describe highly directional, focused light. This is often perceived as a very 'hard' light. Relational Editing    Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. Release    The authorization by the owner of a completed film to a public exhibition of the film. Release Negative    A duplicate negative from which release prints are made. Release Print    A version of a film intended for projection. Rembrandt Lighting    Standard lighting technique that is used in studio portrait photography and cinematography. Remote    Videomaking performed "on location," outside controlled studio environment. Remote Camera    A camera placed by a photographer in areas where the photographer generally cannot be at the camera to snap the shutter. Render    The process of calculating effects in an image for playback or final output. Render Farm    An array of computers that each process small segments of a large task in order to speed it up. Render Time    The time it takes for a computer to convert source elements and commands into a single video file so it can play in full motion. Residual Frame    A frame formed during the compression process by subtracting the reference frame from the desired frame. Resolution    The total number of bits that a digitized image contains, or that a digital display can show. Typically expressed as the number of pixels referencing the width and height of the image or display: 800px x 600px. Resolution Independence    A term used to describe the notion of equipment that can operate at more than one resolution. Responsivity    Measures the input-output gain of a detector system. In the specific case of a photodetector, responsivity measures the electrical output per optical input. Return Loss    The loss of power in the signal returned/reflected by a discontinuity in a transmission line or optical fiber. Reveal    A plot device in narrative structure, and is the exposure to the reader or audience of a previously unseen key character or element of plot or of the performance. Reverb    The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections. Reverberation    The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections. Reversal    In scriptwriting, a reversal is a peripeteia: a serious second act obstacle to a protagonist’s objective. Reversal Film    A film that is manufactured and processed in such a way as to produce a positive image after exposure. Reverse Action    An optical effect in which the action appears backward from its chronological sequence. Reverse Angle    A shot that is turned approximately 180 degrees in relation to the preceding shot. Reverse Cut    A shot that is turned approximately 180 degrees in relation to the preceding shot. Reverse Shot     Rewritable Consumer Timecode    A time code system, available on 8mm and Hi-8 formats only. RF    Radio Frequency RF Converter    A device that converts audio and video signals into a combined RF signal suitable for reception by a standard TV. RF Distribution Amplifier    An RF Distribution Amplifier is a high-performance distribution amplifier for analog RF signals. RF Modulation    The process of combining a video signal with an RF source so the result can be transmitted to a television or VCR. RG-6    A common type of coaxial cable used in residential and commercial applications. RG-58    A type of coaxial cable used for low-power signal and RF connections. RG-59    A type of coaxial cable used for low-power video and RF signal connections. RGB    The basic components of a color video signal. RGBA    A file containing an RGB image plus an alpha channel for transparency information. RGB File Format    The native raster graphics file format for Silicon Graphics workstations. Rigger    Person who works on ropes, booms, lifts, hoists and the like for a stage production, film, or television show. Rigging    A technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh. Rim Light    A hard backlight on the subject that is generally more intense than the key light. Ring Flash    A circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens. Ringing    A copy of the transmitted image super-imposed with an offset on top of the main image. Ring Light    A circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens. Ripple    Automatic updating of an Edit Decision List after making a change to the list. Ripple Dissolve    A ripple dissolve is a type of transition characterized by a wavering image that is usually employed to indicate a change to flashback material, commonly a character's memory of an event. RLE    Run-length encoding RM    RealMedia RMS    Root-mean-square RMVB    RealMedia Variable Bitrate Roll    Text or graphics typically used for special announcements and produced by a character generator. Roll Axis    The Longitudinal Axis of a camera view. Roll Edit    A method of shortening one clip and lengthening an adjacent one at the same time in order to maintain the original length of the sequence. ROM    Read-only memory ROMM RGB    A large gamut color space for use with photographic output in mind. Rooflight    A specialized lighting system that attaches to the roof of a building to provide daylighting. Room Modes    The collection of resonances that exist in a room when the room is excited by an acoustic source such as a loudspeaker Room Tone    The sound in a room. It is recorded and intercut with dialogue to smooth out any editing points. Root-mean-square    Effective sound pressure. Rotary Disc Shutter    A type of shutter. used in motion picture cameras. Rotoscoping    An animation technique that animators use to trace over motion picture footage, frame by frame, to produce realistic action. Rough Cut    A preliminary trial stage in the process of editing a film. Shots are laid out in approximate relationship to an end product without detailed attention to the individual cutting points RS-232    Computer communication standards used in video for the control of certain video equipment. RS-422    A telecommunications standard for binary serial communications between devices. RTCP    RTP Control Protocol RTP    Real-time Transport Protocol RTP Control Protocol    A sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). Its basic functionality and packet structure is defined in RFC 3550. RTCP provides out-of-band statistics and control information for an RTP session. RTSP    Real-Time Streaming Protocol Rule Of Third    A method of composing shots. Run-length Encoding    A type of lossless digital data compression. Rushes    Daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes. RV    Reverberation
S
S-VHS    Super VHS S-Video    A signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. S/PDIF    A type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances. Sabattier Effect    A phenomenon in photography in which the image recorded on a negative or on a photographic print is wholly or partially reversed in tone. Safe Area    Boundaries within which contents of a television picture are sure to be seen, regardless of masking differences in receiver displays. Salt-and-pepper Noise    An image containing salt-and-pepper noise will have dark pixels in bright regions and bright pixels in dark regions. Same Language Subtitling    Te practice of subtitling programs on TV in the same language as the audio. SAMI    Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange Sample-rate Conversion    The process of changing the sampling rate of a discrete signal to obtain a new discrete representation of the underlying continuous signal. Sample Reel    A short, edited video montage or footage showcasing someone's work for the purpose of employment or promotion. Sampling    The reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal. Sampling Rate    The reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal. Satellite Dish    A dish-shaped antenna that receives or transmits information from or to a satellite. Saturation    Property of a color determined by a combination of light intensity and how much it is distributed across the spectrum of different wavelengths SAV    Start of active video Scalable Video    A new wireless multicast technology. In scalable video multicast, the video program subscribers can view the program in accordance with their link conditions. Scalable Video Coding    The name for the Annex G extension of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression standard. Scaling    The resizing of a digital image. In video technology, the magnification of digital material is known as upscaling or resolution enhancement. Scan Conversion    The process of representing continuous graphics objects as a collection of discrete pixels. Scan Line    Result of television's swift scanning process which sweeps out a series of horizontal lines from left to right, then down a bit and left to right again. SCART    An audio/video connector used in consumer equipment, especially in Europe. Scenarist    A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. Scene    A sequence of related shots usually constituting action in one particular location. Scene Heading    A basic set description located at the top of a script scene, written in all caps, providing information as to whether the scene is interior vs. exterior, day or night, and where it takes place. Scenography    The practice of crafting stage environments or atmospheres. Schüfftan Process    An in-camera special effect whereby live actors appear inside miniatures. Scoop    The light that provides a soft-edged field of light used to provide additional subject illumination to reduce harsh shadows or areas not highlighted by the key light. Scope    A system of anamorphic lenses and widescreen (2.35:1) projection. Score    The original-music composition for a motion picture or television production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited. Scotopic Lumens    The portion of luminous output that gets a response from the rods in human eyes. Scotopic Vision    The vision of the eye under low-light levels. Scrambler    A device that encodes a sender's message so that it becomes unintelligible to a receiver not equipped with a descrambling device. Scratch Tracks    Music tracks that are recorded quickly, so voice actors, editors, and musicians have material to work with and can play to support the other parts. Scratch Video    A British video art movement that emerged in the early to mid-1980s. Screen-door Effect    A visual artifact where the fine lines separating pixels or subpixels on a display is visible. Screen Direction    The direction that actors or objects appear to be moving on the screen from the point of view of the camera or audience. Screener    An advance screening of a film or television Screenplay    A formatted written work that includes stage direction, action, character names and dialogue. Screenplay Writer    A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. Screen Tearing    A visual artifact in video display where a display device shows information from multiple frames in a single screen draw. Screenwriter    A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. Scrim    A metal 'window screen' that can be placed in front of a lighting unit to decrease the lighting intensity by a predetermined amount. Script    A formatted written work that includes stage direction, action, character names and dialogue. Script Breakdown    An intermediate step in the production of a play, film, comic book, or any other work that is originally planned using a script. Script Supervisor    A member of a film crew who oversees the continuity of the motion picture including wardrobe, props, set dressing, hair, makeup and the actions of the actors during a scene. Scriptwriter    A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. Scrub    Moving a piece of tape or magnetic film back and forth over a sound head to locate a specific cue or word. Scrub Wheel    A mechanical control for scrubbing film or magnetic tape. SCSI    Small Computer System Interface SD    Composite Video SDDS    Sony Dynamic Digital Sound SDE    Screen-door effect SDI    Serial digital interface SDL    Simple DirectMedia Layer SDR    Standard-dynamic-range SDTI    Serial Data Transport Interface SDTV    Standard-definition television SDXC    A memory card format that supports cards up to 2 TB and speeds up to 300 MB/s. SECAM    The video standard used in some European and surrounding countries. Second Unit    A photographic team that shoots scenes which do not involve the principal cast, such as stunts, car chases, or establishing shots. SEG    Special Effects Generator Selective Focus    In an image , the distance between the closest and the farthest objects that are acceptably sharp. Senior    A 5K light. Sensitivity    An indication of recording or playback efficiency as might be a measure of a microphone or audio tape recorder. Sensitometry    The study of light-sensitive materials, especially photographic film. Separate Video    A signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. Sepia    Brassy antique color effect characteristic of old photographs. Sepmag    A device for the recording and playback of film sound that is recorded on magnetic film. Sequence    A series of scenes that form a distinct narrative unit, which is usually connected either by a unity of location or a unity of time. Sequencer    The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives, stores and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence. Sequence Shot    A shot, a long take, that includes a full narrative sequence containing multiple scenes in its duration, meaning different locations or different time periods. SERDES    Serializer Serial    The process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. Serial Data Transport Interface    A way of transmitting data packets over a Serial Digital Interface datastream. Serial Digital Interface    A family of digital video interfaces first standardized by SMPTE in 1989. Serializer    In high-speed communications, a pair of functional blocks used to convert data between serial data and parallel interfaces in each direction. Serializer/Deserializer    In high-speed communications, a pair of functional blocks used to convert data between serial data and parallel interfaces in each direction. Serial Port    A computer l/O (input/output) port through which the computer communicates with the external world. Serial Storage Architecture    A serial transport protocol used to attach disk drives to server computers. Serial Video Processing    A video mixing architecture where a series of video multipliers, each combining two video signals, are cascaded or arranged in a serial fashi Set    Where the camera is in place for a shot that is being set up for being shot at a location or studio. Set-top Box    A device that is connected to a television so that it can receive digital signals. Set-top Unit    A device that is connected to a television so that it can receive digital signals. Set Dressing    General decorative items in a scene that are not specifically referenced by the script. Setting    In scriptwriting, the time and geographic location within a narrative, either nonfiction or fiction. A literary element, the setting helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story SGI    Silicon Graphics Image Shading    The depiction of depth perception in 3D models or illustrations. Shallow Focus    A photographic and cinematographic technique incorporating a small depth of field. Sharpness    The fine details in a video picture. SheerVideo    A family of proprietary lossless video codecs developed by BitJazz Inc. to enable the capture, editing, playback, and archival of professional-quality lossless video formats in real-time on low-power inexpensive hardware such as laptop computers and video cameras. SHN    Shorten Shoot And Protect    A technique where widescreen footage is shot with the main action centered so as to provide easier center crop conversion to a 4:3 aspect ratio. Shooting In The Round    A style in cinematography in which the 180-degree rule is broken and the actors are filmed from all sides. Shooting Ratio    Amount of raw footage recorded relative to the amount used in edited, finished program. Shooting Schedule    A project plan for each day's shooting for film production. Shooting Script    The version of a screenplay used during the production of a motion picture. Shorten    A file format used for compressing audio data. It is a form of data compression of files and is used to losslessly compress CD-quality audio files (44.1 kHz 16-bit stereo PCM). Shorten is no longer developed. Shot    All pictorial material recorded by a camera. More strictly speaking, shots are intentional, isolated camera views which collectively comprise a scene. Shotgun Mic    A highly directional microphone, usually with a long, tubular body; used by the production sound mixer on location or on the set for film and television productions. Shot List    A detailed description of all the shots that will be part of a scene, a film, or a video. Shot Noise    The dominant noise in the darker parts of an image from an image sensor is typically that caused by statistical quantum fluctuations, that is, variation in the number of photons sensed at a given exposure level. Shot Reverse Shot    A film technique where one character is shown looking at another character (often off-screen), and then the other character is shown looking back at the first character. Shoulder Rig    A piece of equipment used to help stabilize a handheld camera. Showreel    A short, edited video montage or footage showcasing someone's work for the purpose of employment or promotion. Shutter    In a camera, the mechanical component that allows light to reach the sensors for a set amount of time. Shutter Speed    One of several methods used to control the amount of light recorded by the camera. Siamese    A splitter that divides a power line into two parts. Sibilance    The excessive or exaggerated hissing in recorded voice patterns. Sider    A flag up on the side of a lighting unit to block light. SIF    Source Input Format SIGGRAPH    Special Interest Group on Computer GRAPHics and Interactive Techniques Sightline    An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she is looking at. Sight Line    An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she is looking at. Signal    The form of variation with time of a wave whereby information is conveyed in some form whether it is acoustic or electronic. Signal-to-noise Ratio    A measurement of the ratio between the amplitude of the original signal and the background noise. A higher SNR indicates a better output. Signal Generator    A device or component that outputs predetermined audio or video signals for testing and measurement purposes. Signaling Rate    The aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system. Silhouette    The image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single color, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject. Silicon Graphics Image    The native raster graphics file format for Silicon Graphics workstations. Silk    A material used to diffuse or reflect light. Silverlight    A deprecated application framework for writing and running rich Internet applications, similar to Adobe Flash. Simple DirectMedia Layer    A cross-platform software development library designed to provide a hardware abstraction layer for computer multimedia hardware components. Simulcast    The broadcasting of programs or events across more than one medium, or more than one service on the same medium, at exactly the same time (that is, simultaneously). Simultaneity    The quality of having two or more things happening at once. Simultaneous Broadcast    The broadcasting of programs or events across more than one medium, or more than one service on the same medium, at exactly the same time (that is, simultaneously). Single    A shot with only one subject in the frame. Single-camera Setup    A method of filmmaking and video production. Single-channel Video    A video artwork using a single electronic source presented and exhibited from one playback device. Single-system Recording    The system of recording sound directly on film. Single System    A method of recording sound and picture on the same medium, most typically used in newsgathering. Sizzle Reel    A short, edited video montage or footage showcasing someone's work for the purpose of employment or promotion. Skeletal Animation    A technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh. Skip Frame    An optical printing effect which eliminates selected frames of the original scene to speed up the action. Skylight    A specialized lighting system that attaches to the roof of a building to provide daylighting. Slate    A device designed to keep track and synchronize the different scenes and takes in post-production. Slave    An audiotape or videotape transport, projector or mag film dubber whose movements follow the movement of a single master transport. Sliding Leg C-Stand    A C-stand with an uppermost leg which is moveable on the vertical axis. Slit-scan Photography    A photographic and cinematographic process where a moveable slide, into which a slit has been cut, is inserted between the camera and the subject to be photographed. Slow Cutting    A film editing technique which uses shots of long duration. Slow Motion    A device that uses a track to allow smooth camera movements laterally, front to back, or even diagonally. SLS    Same language subtitling Slug    A strip of film or digital effect used to fill in black areas on the timeline. Slug Line    A basic set description located at the top of a script scene, written in all caps, providing information as to whether the scene is interior vs. exterior, day or night, and where it takes place. Smacker Video    A video file format (with the .SMK file extension) developed by RAD Game Tools, and primarily used for full-motion video in video games. Small Computer System Interface    A set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. Smash Cut    A technique in film and other moving picture media where one scene abruptly cuts to another for aesthetic, narrative, or emotional purpose. SMIL    Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language SMPTE    SMPTE Color Bars SMPTE/EBU    The European Broadcasting Union, an alliance of public service media organizations, established on 12 February 1950. SMPTE 240M    An interim color space standard used during the early days of HDTV (1988-1998). SMPTE 301    Standard specifications for film leaders. The standard also specifies the position and placement of the cue marks at the end of the reel. SMPTE 367M    The SMPTE standard for HDCAM. The standard specifies compression of high-definition digital. SMPTE 421M    A video coding format. Most of it was initially developed as Microsoft's proprietary video format Windows Media Video 9 in 2003. SMPTE Color Bars    A television test pattern used to configure monitors to the NTSC standard. SMPTE D-11    The SMPTE standard for HDCAM. The standard specifies compression of high-definition digital. SMPTE Timecode    SMPTE's vertical interval time code format standard. Snake    A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals Snake Cable    A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals SND    Interchangeable audio file formats used in the Sun Sparc station, Nest and Silicon Graphics (SGI) computers. Snoot    Open-ended cylindrical funnel mounted on a light source to project a narrow, concentrated circle of illumination. SnorriCam    A camera rig attached to the body of an actor to create the effect of a background moving around a stationary subject. Snow    In analog video, a random flicker of dots or snow-like patterns resulting from electronic and radiated electromagnetic interferences accidentally picked up by the antenna. SNR    Signal-to-noise ratio Society Of Motion Picture And Television Engineers    A global professional association, of engineers, technologists, and executives working in the media and entertainment industry. SOF    Single-system recording Softbox    Lighting accessory available in various sizes usually made of textured gold or silver fabric. Facilitates soft, shadowless illumination by reflecting light onto a scene. Soft Focus    Soft focus is a lens flaw, in which the lens forms images that are blurred due to spherical aberration. Soft Light    A light which is diffused and creates very soft shadows. Solarization    Special effect in which the lightest and darkest values of a picture are made dark while the middle tones become light. Solid-state Image Sensor    A CCD in which charges are introduced when light from a scene is focused on the surface of the device. SONET    Synchronous optical networking Sony Dynamic Digital Sound    Sony Dynamic Digital Sound System. A film sound format which encodes eight tracks of digital audio outside of the sprocket holes on both edges of a film print. Sorenson Media    An American software company specializing in video encoding technology. Sound-on-disc    A class of sound film processes using a phonograph or other disc to record or playback sound in sync with a motion picture. Sound-on-film    A class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying a picture is recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same strip of the film carrying the picture. Sound Bite    A short piece of spoken speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio used to highlight, promote or exemplify the full piece. Sound Bridge    An audio track used as a transition between two scenes to ensure continuity. Sound Designer    A film sound specialist responsible for the development and augmentation of all soundtrack material, or a significant portion thereof, and is ultimately in charge of the entire sound production. Sound Effect    A recorded or electronically produced sound that matches the visual action taking place onscreen. Sound Engineer    A professional who helps to produce the audio portion of a recording or a live performance. Sound Follower    A device for the recording and playback of film sound that is recorded on magnetic film. Sound Marker    A device designed to keep track and synchronize the different scenes and takes in post-production. Sound Masking    A phenomenon whereby one or more sound "trick" the ear into not hearing other, weaker, sound that are also present. Sound Mixer    The person responsible for capturing sound as it plays out live, determining microphone types and placement. Sound Recordist    The person responsible for capturing sound as it plays out live, determining microphone types and placement. Sound Reflection    The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections. Sound Report    A filmmaking term for a sheet of paper created by the Sound Mixer to record details of each file recorded during filming. Soundstage    A soundproof, hangar-like structure, building, or room, used for the production of theatrical film-making and television productions, usually located on a secured movie or television studio property. Sound Track    Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog. Soundtrack    Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog. Source Footage    Unedited, original unprocessed material as originally filmed by a camera. Source Input Format    A video format that was developed to allow the storage and transmission of digital video. Soviet Montage Theory    An approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing (montage is French for "assembly" or "editing"). Spatial Resolution    The precision of a measurement with respect to space, or the real dimension that represents a pixel of the image. SPD    Spectral power distribution Special Effect    Illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special Effects Generator    Video signal processor with vast, but varying, image manipulation capabilities involving patterns and placement as well as color and texture. Special Interest Group On Computer GRAPHics And Interactive Techniques    An annual conference on computer graphics (CG) organized by the ACM SIGGRAPH, starting in 1974. Spec Script    A non-commissioned and unsolicited screenplay. Spectral Flux    The radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. Spectral Power    The radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. Spectral Power Distribution    A measurement that describes the power per unit area per unit wavelength of an illumination (radiant exitance). Spectral Response    A reference to the sensitivity of sensors to different wavelengths of light. Spectrophotometry    A spectroscopic method that measures the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength. Spectroradiometer    A device used to measure the light spectrum. Specular    A term used to describe highly directional, focused light. This is often perceived as a very 'hard' light. Specular Highlight    The bright spot of light that appears on shiny objects when illuminated. Specular Reflection    The mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface. Speculative Screenplay    A non-commissioned and unsolicited screenplay. Speed Of Sound    The velocity of sound in air is 770 mi/hr. This speed, however, is influenced by temperature and air pressure. Speex    An audio compression codec specifically tuned for the reproduction of human speech and also a free software speech codec that may be used on VoIP applications and podcasts. Spherical Aberration    A type of aberration found in optical systems that use elements with spherical surfaces, such as a photographic lens. Spherochromatism    Visual inconsistencies that occur when the camera lens fails to focus all colors to the same point. Spike    A short burst of voltage, current or energy on a transmission line or circuit. Spike Tape    A type of non-damaging, super durable tape used on film sets, most often by the gaffer and grip department. Spill    Light that is escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light that is falling where it is not wanted. Spill Fill    Light that is escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light that is falling where it is not wanted. Splice    The technique of compositing used to combine visual elements such as actors onto a virtual background. In traditional film-making, refers to the act of joining two pieces of film by any of several methods. Spline    A curve in 3D space defined by control points. Used for interpolation and smoothing. Split Cut    A type of cut in which the audio from the previous scene continues playing over the beginning of the next scene. Split Edit    A transition from one shot to another in film or video, where transition of the audio and video happen at different times. Split Screen    Optical or special effects shot in which two separate images are combined on each frame. Spool    A flanged roll on which film is wound for general handling or projection. Spot    On a lensed light, the smallest beam spread. Spotlight    Radiates a well-defined directional beam of light, casting hard, distinct shadows. Spotting    Used in scoring and sound effects editing to identify the specific scenes or points where music cues or effects cues will take place. Usually, this will include information on length and style. Sprocket    Geared wheels that attach onto the perforations on the edge of a film roll and wind it through a mechanism into a camera or projector. SRAM    Static random-access memory SRGB    standard Red Green Blue SRP    Stream Reservation Protocol SRS Labs    A Santa Ana, California-based audio technology engineering company that specialized in audio enhancement solutions for a wide variety of consumer electronic devices. SRT    SubRip SSA    Serial Storage Architecture SSIM    Structural similarity index measure Stabilization    Similar to matchmoving but the entire frame is moved so that the elements of the scene stay in the same place. Stabilizer    A device designed to hold a camera in a manner that prevents or compensates for unwanted camera movement, such as "camera shake". Stagecoach-wheel Effect    An optical illusion in which a spoked wheel appears to rotate differently from its true rotation. Staging    General decorative items in a scene that are not specifically referenced by the script. Stair Leg C-stand    A C-stand with an uppermost leg which is moveable on the vertical axis. STANAG 3350    NATO analog video Standardization Agreement for military aircraft avionics. Standard-definition Television    A television system that uses a resolution that is not considered to be the either high or enhanced definition. Standard-dynamic-range    The representation of light intensity based on a CRT's brightness, contrast, color characteristics, and limits. Standard HD    A progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). Standard Red Green Blue    An RGB color space that HP and Microsoft created cooperatively in 1996 to use on monitors, printers, and the Internet. Standards Conversion    The process of changing one type of television system to another. Standard Volume Indicator    A device displaying a representation of the signal level in audio equipment. Standing Waves    A deep sound in a small room or recording booth. It refers to low audio frequencies caused by long waves with short reflection patterns. Star Filter    A physical or digital light filter that creates a star-like visual effect out of a light source. Start-up/closedown Test    A chart with special patterns, placed in front of a television camera to generate a known reference signal that can be used to adjust the camera and all the equipment downstream from the camera. Start Of Active Video    In BT.656, a stream-delimiting code indicating the end of a video sequence. Star Wipe    A wipe that takes the shape of a growing or shrinking star, and is used to impart a sense of "extra specialness" or "added value". Static Random-access Memory    A type of semiconductor random-access memory (RAM) that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit. Static Shot    A shot using an immobile camera. Statistical Time-division Multiplexing    A type of communication link sharing, very similar to dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). STB    Set-top box Steadicam    A flying camera stabilizer (often comprised of an arm, vest, and sled) that enables cinematographers to get smooth moving shots. Stem    A discrete or grouped collection of audio sources mixed together, usually by one person, to be dealt with downstream as one unit. Step    The act of moving forward or backward through video one frame at a time. Step Outline    In scriptwriting, an outline used by writers to help organize and visualize their story before writing it. Stereo    Sound emanating from two isolated sources, intended to simulate pattern of natural human hearing. Stereokinetic    The phenomenon whereby the three-dimensional shape of an object can be perceived while the object is casting shadows when moving. Stereopsis    The ability to perceive depth and 3-dimensional structures by human eyes. Stereoscopic Depth Perception    The ability to perceive depth and 3-dimensional structures by human eyes. Still Store    A device that stores individual pictures of a sequence of video frames. Stinger    The nickname for an extension cord made to the film industry standard. Most often referred to a single 'hot' extension that is left lying around for occasional use. Stock    In traditional film-making, a general term for the motion picture film itself, before it is exposed. Stock Character    A plot outline used by writers to help organize and visualize their story before writing it. Stock Footage    Video footage that can be used again in other films. Stock Numbers    A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm negatives. Stock Shot    Video footage that can be used again in other films. Stop-action    A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots. Stop Down    The technique of increasing the f-stop number in order to reduce the amount of light entering the iris of a lens. Stop Motion    An animated-film making technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion when the series of frames is played back as a fast sequence. Stop Motion Substitution    A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots. Stopping Down    The technique of increasing the f-stop number in order to reduce the amount of light entering the iris of a lens. Stop Trick    A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots. Story Arc    The parabolic shift in polar attitudes of a character from point A to point B during the course of a story. Storyboard    A drawing that shows each scene of your video. A storyboard provides a concise plan for what you need to shoot or animate. Storytelling    The social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment. Stream    A sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals (packets of data or data packets) used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted. Streaming Media    Digital video content that can be transmitted and viewed simultaneously. Typically used for broadcasting "live" events in real-time. Stream Reservation Protocol    An enhancement to Ethernet that implements admission control. Strike    The process of breaking down a camera position, location or set. Stripboard    A filmmaking term for cardboard or wooden chart displaying color-coded strips of paper, each containing information about a scene in the film's shooting script. Striped Stock    Tapes that have been pre-recorded with blank data (a black screen and timecode) before they are used. Striplight    Row lights for evenly illuminating a cyclorama or other background. Strobe    An instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary. Stroboscope    An instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary. Stroboscopic Effect    A visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples. Structural Similarity Index Measure    A method for predicting the perceived quality of digital television and cinematic pictures, as well as other kinds of digital images and videos. Stuck Sub-pixel    A pixel on an LCD that remains perpetually "on". Subcarrier    A sideband of a radio frequency carrier wave, which is modulated to send additional information. Subjective Camera    A short film scene that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera). Subpixels    A spatial resolution smaller than that of pixels. Subplot    A secondary strand of the plot that is a supporting side story for any story or the main plot. SubRip    A free software program for Windows which extracts subtitles and their timings from various video formats to a text file. Subsampling    A color video encoding and compression technique that favors luminance over color information. Subscription VOD    Subscription business model in which subscribers are charged a regular fee to access unlimited programs. Examples of these services include Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Disney+, and Hulu. SubStation Alpha    A subtitle file format created by CS Low (also known as Kotus) that allows for more advanced subtitles than the conventional SRT and similar formats. Substitution Splice    A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots. Subtext    In scriptwriting, the undercurrent of emotions and polar attitude shifts that lie beneath physical action and between the lines of dialogue. Subtitles    The synchronized display of the text of a translation or transcription of the dialogue at the bottom of the screen during the scenes when sound is available but not understood. Sun Raster    A raster graphics file format used on SunOS by Sun Microsystems. SUPER    Superimposition Super-Emitron    A video camera tube developed in the mid-1930s by EMI to replace the original iconoscope. Supercut    A genre of video editing consisting of a montage of short clips with the same theme. Super Extended Graphics Array    A resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels. Super Extended Graphics Array Plus    A resolution of 1400 × 1050 pixels. Superimposition    The placement of videos, graphics, or text over other videos, graphics, or text. Supertitles    Translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera, theatre, or other musical performances. Super VGA    A resolution of 800 × 600 pixels. Super VHS    An improved version of the VHS tape format capable of recording better picture resolution. Super Video CD    A digital format for storing video on standard compact discs. Super Video Compact Disc    A digital format for storing video on standard compact discs. Super Video Graphics Array    A resolution of 800 × 600 pixels. Superzoom    A type of photographic zoom lens with unconventionally large focal length factors, typically ranging from wide-angle to extreme long lens focal lengths in one lens. Supporting Actor    An actor who performs a role in a play or film below that of the leading actor(s), and above that of a bit part. Supporting Character    A character in a narrative that is not the focus of the primary storyline, but appears or is mentioned in the story enough to be more than just a minor character or a cameo appearance. SurCaps    Translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera, theatre, or other musical performances. Surround Sound    Sound that is reproduced through speakers above or behind the audience. Surtitles    Translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera, theatre, or other musical performances. Suspense    In scriptwriting, a state of mental uncertainty, anxiety, of being undecided, or of being doubtful. Sustain    The amplitude of a sound or musical note while it is being held. SVC    Scalable Video Coding SVCD    Super Video CD SVGA    Super Video Graphics Array SVI    Standard volume indicator SVOD    Subscription VOD Sweetening    Enhancing the sound of a recording or a particular sound effect with equalization or some other signal processing device. Swishblog    A unique way of vid-blogging (invented by Vimean Justin Johnson) that makes use of quick pans or tilts at the beginning and end of every shot to transition between clips and give your video a fun, dream-like feel. Swish Pan    Extremely rapid camera movement from left to right or right to left, appearing as an image blur. Switched Talkback    A monitoring and cueing system used in video production and broadcasting for one-way communication from a director to an on-air talent or a remote location. Switcher    A device used to select between several different video sources and, in some cases, compositing video sources together to create special effects. SXGA    Super Extended Graphics Array SXGA+    Super Extended Graphics Array Plus SxS    A digital recording optical disc format introduced by Sony in 2003 primarily for XDCAM, its tapeless camcorder system. Sync    The sound lining up properly with the image. Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange    A Microsoft accessibility initiative released in 1998. The structured markup language is designed to simplify creating subtitles for media playback on a PC. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language    A World Wide Web Consortium recommended Extensible Markup Language (XML) markup language to describe multimedia presentations. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy    Standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Synchronous Optical Networking    Standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Synchronous Sound    The sound lining up properly with the image. Sync Light    A camera attachment which records the film shot and take numbers and a visible sync mark which corresponds to a tone fed to an audio recorder. Sync Restoration    A process which replaces distorted and missing sync* information by checking incoming sync, analyzing the frequencies involved and generating new fully restored sync. Syncro-edit    Wired control protocol which activates/deactivates a VCR's record pause function. Many non-compatible versions of this protocol exist. Sync Sound    Sound recorded at the time of the filming of movies. Sync Stripping    A process which separates sync from the rest of the video signal for timing correction, clamping and other purposes.
T
T-Stop    The f-stop value divided by the square root of the lens transmittance. T1    The primary digital telephone standard used in the United States, Canada and Japan to transmit multiplexed voice and data calls over telephone lines. T3    A terrestrial and satellite format for transmitting information digitally. TAB Fault    A defective pixel caused by a connection failure between the transparent electrode layers to the video driver board of an LCD. Tagged Image File Format    A popular cross-platform still image file format. Tail    A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine. Tail Leader    A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine. Take    An individual shot. When time and budgets permit, many takes may be filmed of the same shot. Take Down    Reducing the light on an object by means of nets, scrims, dimmers or wasting light. Talent    The on-camera subjects in video production. Tally Light    A small signal lamp located just above the camera lens or on the electronic viewfinder to indicate that the signal is live. Tape Automated Bonding Fault    A defective pixel caused by a connection failure between the transparent electrode layers to the video driver board of an LCD. Tape Grade    Color correction performed from a master tape rather than from film. Tape Hiss    Noise that is caused by minute imperfections in the surface of a recording medium. TARGA    A raster graphics file format created by Truevision Inc. Target Audience    The intended viewers. Successful business videos must define and address this audience. Target White    A set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction. Tascam Digital Interface    A proprietary format connector defined by TASCAM that is unbalanced and uses a 25-pin D-sub cable to transmit and/or receive up to eight channels of digital audio between compatible devices. TBC    Time Base Corrector TDM    Time-division multiplexing Tearing    An horizontal line which appears during playback, caused by the graphics processor being out of sync with the display. Teaser Sequence    A narrative tactic where the video starts by jumping directly into a story, before any title sequence or opening credits is displayed. Technical Grade    A telecine transfer is adjusted to be as flat as possible so as not to lose any color information. A tape grade will be performed later on to achieve the desired look of the film. Technicolor    A series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades. Techniscope    A 35 mm motion picture camera film format introduced by Technicolor Italia in 1960. Technological Protection Measures    Access control technologies used for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. Telecentric    A compound lens that has its entrance or exit pupil at infinity. Telecine    The process of transferring motion picture film into video and is performed in a color suite. Telecine Suite    The name of the control room used for color grading video. Telephoto    A lens that uses a telephoto group to enable a longer focal length than the physical body of the lens would normally permit. Teleplay    A screenplay or script used in the production of a scripted television program or series. Teleprompter    A device for displaying large, readable text on a partially transparent screen for video production. Temp Dub    A preliminary mixing of dialogue, music, and sound effects, usually so that a first cut may be viewed with all of these elements incorporated. Temporal Aliasing    A side effect of digital signal processing that causes distortion or unwanted artifacts in the reconstruction process. Aliasing can affect both the video and the audio signals. Temporal Resolution    The discrete resolution of a measurement with respect to time. Tension Arm    In a videotape, a device used to control the tension of the magnetic tape during machine operation. Termination Switch    A switch that connects and disconnects a load resistance to a video input, used to terminate the line. Test Card    A chart with special patterns, placed in front of a television camera to generate a known reference signal that can be used to adjust the camera and all the equipment downstream from the camera. Test Card F    A test card created by the BBC and used on British television. Test Pattern    A chart with special patterns, placed in front of a television camera to generate a known reference signal that can be used to adjust the camera and all the equipment downstream from the camera. Texture    The perceived surface quality of an image. Texture Gradient    The distortion in size and details used to provide a visual depth cue in an image. TGA    Truevision TGA Thaumatrope    An optical toy that was popular in the 19th century. Theatrical Property    Objects used either in decorating a set or by talent. Thematic Patterning    A metaphoric element, literary or cinematic device used within a film to weave an underlying message or theme throughout the story. Thematic Thread    A metaphoric element, literary or cinematic device used within a film to weave an underlying message or theme throughout the story. Theme    An underlying philosophical, social or spiritual message that gives the plot meaning and elevates the story to its essential, universal human ideas. three-act structure Theora    A free lossy video compression format. Thin-film Filter    An optical filter designed to transmit light selectively according to wavelength. Thin Raster    An image that has been squeezed horizontally to preserve bandwidth and then unsqueezed before playback. Three-CCD Camera    A camera whose imaging system uses three separate CCDs, each one receiving a filtered RGB color range. Three-point Lighting    A common type of lighting setup that lights a subject from three different sources in order to control shadows and balance contrast. Three-quarter-inch    Most popular professional/industrial video format employing larger cassettes and three-quarter-inch tape. Three-shot    Camera view including three subjects, generally applicable to interview situations. Three-two Pull Down    The method used to map the 24 fps of film onto the 30 fps of 525-line TV. Threshold Of Visibility    The impairment level (or D/U in dB) beyond which a source of impairment or interference may introduce visible deficiencies in more sensitive program material. Thunderbolt    The brand name of a hardware interface developed by Intel (in collaboration with Apple) that allows the connection of external peripherals to a computer. THX    A theatrical film exhibition sound system which maintains a consistent sound standard from theatre to theatre. TIA/EIA-644    A technical standard that specifies electrical characteristics of a differential, serial communication protocol. Ticker    Text or graphics typically used for special announcements and produced by a character generator. TIFF    Tagged Image File Format Tight On    A video or still shot of a subject taken at a relatively close range. Tilt    Fixed up and down, or vertical, movements made with the camera. Time-division Multiplexing    A method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern. Time-lapse    A technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured is much more spread out than the frequency used to view the sequence. Time-lapse Photography    A technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much more spread out than the frequency used to view the sequence. Time Base Correction    A technique used to reduce or eliminate errors caused by mechanical instability present in analog recordings on mechanical media. Time Base Corrector    A device used to rectify any problems with a video signal's sync pulses by generating a new clean time base and synchronizing any other incoming video to this reference. Time Code    A high-frequency signal that allows the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment. Timecode    A high-frequency signal that allows the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment. Timed Text    The presentation of text media in synchrony with other media, such as audio and video. Timed Text Markup Language    A W3C's standard regulating timed text on the internet. Timelapse    A technique where each frame in a video is captured at a much slower rate than normal. Timeline    A visual representation of a movie over time. Timeline Editing    A computer-based method of editing video and audio tracks. Timing Skew    A measure of the difference in timing between two clocks used in a computer or digital electronic system that is operating synchronously. Title-safe Area    In television broadcasting, an area far enough away from any edge so that text or graphics can display perfectly or at least without distortion. Title Sequence    A scene or sequence of scenes over which the title roll of the movie credits are superimposed. Titling    The process of incorporating on-screen text in movies, television, and other media. TMDS    Transition-minimized differential signaling TNC Connector    A threaded version of the BNC connector. Tone    The attitude toward a subject or story that is being expressed by the writer or director of a screenplay or film. Tone Mapping    The mapping of a set of colors to another in order to approximate the appearance of HDR images in a medium with a limited dynamic range. Tone Reproduction    The mapping of scene luminance and color to print reflectance or display luminance. TOSLINK    A standardized optical fiber connector system. (Toshiba Link) Total Flux Method    A simplified method to calculate the light level in a room. Totem    A media player (audio and video) for the GNOME computer desktop environment. TOV    Threshold of visibility TR    Temporal resolution Track    A separate audio or video layer on a timeline. Tracking    The process of locating a moving object (or multiple objects) over time using a camera. Tracking Shot    A camera shot that physically advances or changes the position of the camera relative to the subject, changing the spatial relations between a subject and its surroundings. Trail Camera    A camera placed by a photographer in areas where the photographer generally cannot be at the camera to snap the shutter. Trailer    A short publicity film which advertises a film or forthcoming presentations. Transcoding    The process of converting a file or stream from one format to another. Transformational Arc    The parabolic shift in polar attitudes of a character from point A to point B during the course of a story. Transform Coding    A type of data compression designed for natural data that uses knowledge of the application domain to choose which information to discard. Transient    A short burst or spike of energy caused by a sudden change of state. Transition    A technique used in the post-production process of film editing and video editing by which scenes or shots are combined Transition-minimized Differential Signaling    A technology for transmitting high-speed serial data is used by the DVI and HDMI video interfaces, as well as by other digital communication interfaces. Translucent    Property of a material that allows a partial transmission of light, generally diffusing it and eliminating glare. Frosted glass is an example of a translucent material. Transparent    Property of a material that allows most or all of the light incident on it to pass through. Clear glass is a translucent material. Traveling Matte    An evolution of the matte process that allowed the matte to animate its shape and position from frame to frame. Treatment    A piece of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and the first draft of a screenplay for a motion picture, television program, or radio play. Trellis Quantization    An algorithm that can improve data compression in DCT-based encoding methods. Trick Film    Short silent films designed to feature innovative special effects. Trims    Portions of a scene left over after the selected section has been used in final cutting. Tripod    Three-legged camera mount offering stability and camera placement/movement consistency. Most are lightweight, used for remote recording. Tripod Head    The part of a tripod system that attaches the supported device (such as a camera) to the tripod legs, and allows the orientation of the device to be manipulated or locked down. Tristimulus Colorimeter    A device used to profile and calibrate output devices by measuring color differences. Tristimulus Color Space    Three-dimensional representation of the human color space. Trolley Shot    A shot in which the camera moves toward or away from its subject while filming. Trompe-l'œil    An art technique that uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions. Trucking    The process of locating a moving object (or multiple objects) over time using a camera. Trucking Shot    A shot in which the camera moves toward or away from its subject while filming. True Audio    A lossless compressor for multichannel 8, 16, and 24 bits audio data. Truevision TGA    A raster graphics file format created by Truevision Inc. Trunk Shot    A cinematic camera angle which captures film from inside the trunk of a car. TTA    True Audio TTML    Timed Text Markup Language Tuner    Television and VCR component that receives RF signals from an antenna or other RF sources and decodes into separate audio and video signals. Tungsten Halogen    Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. Tungsten Light    A light bulb that emits light using a filament of tungsten wire, and are larger versions of the everyday lighting found in your home. Turtle Base C-stand    A C-stand with a removable base. TV Aerial Plug    A colloquial name for a connector used to connect coaxial cables with each other and with terrestrial VHF/UHF roof antennas, antenna signal amplifiers, CATV distribution equipment, TV sets and FM / DAB-radio receivers. TV Safe    The area of a filmed image which will normally appear on a home television set after a film has been transferred in telecine and then transmitted. Tweening    The process of generating intermediate frames between two images, called key frames, to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image. Twin-lead    A threaded version of the BNC connector. Twisted Pair    A type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility. Two Shot    A camera view including two subjects, most generally applicable to interview situations. Type C    SMPTE standard for 1-inch non-segmented helical video recording format.
U
U-matic    Most popular professional/industrial video format employing larger cassettes and three-quarter-inch tape. UAV    Drone UDI    Unified Display Interface UGA    A resolution of 1600 × 1200 pixels. UHD    A standard for video display with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 and an aspect ratio of 16:9. UHDTV    A standard for video display with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 and an aspect ratio of 16:9. UHF Connector    A dated name for a threaded RF connector. Ultra-high-definition Television    A standard for video display with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 and an aspect ratio of 16:9. Ultra Extended Graphics Array    A resolution of 1600 × 1200 pixels. Ultra HD Television    A standard for video display with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 and an aspect ratio of 16:9. Ultra Stereo    A cinema sound system that was developed in 1984. Ultraviolet Light    A type of electromagnetic radiation, invisible to the human eye (i.e., beyond the visible spectrum) with a wavelength of 10 to 380 nanometers. Ultra Wide Angle Lens    A lens that provides a very wider view using a focal length that is shorter than the average wide-angle lens. Umbrella    Lighting accessory available in various sizes usually made of textured gold or silver fabric. Facilitates soft, shadowless illumination by reflecting light onto a scene. Undercranking    The process of slowing the frame rate of a camera down the action appears faster during playback at normal speed. Underexposed    Film that has not been exposed to light for a long enough time to provide proper contrast and thus appears dim. Underscan    A video or computer image reduced so that all four edges are visible on-screen, leaving it surrounded by black borders. Underscore    A soft soundtrack theme that provides an emotional or atmospheric background to the primary dialog or narration onscreen. Unidirectional    A highly selective microphone pickup pattern rejects sound coming from behind while absorbing that from in front. Unified Display Interface    A digital video interface specification based on Digital Visual Interface (DVI). Unifocal Lens    A lens with a fixed focal length. Uniform Noise    The noise caused by quantizing the pixels of a sensed image to a number of discrete levels is known as quantization noise. Unsharp Masking    An image sharpening technique used in image processing. Unsqueeze    A print or image in which the distorted image of an anamorphic negative has been corrected for normal projection or display. Upconversion    A system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution, a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling." Uplighting    Lighting method where an object or surface is lit from below, with a luminaire that directs its output upward. Uplighting is commonly used in lighting applications that require minimal glare and uniform general illuminance levels. Upscaling    A system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution, a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling." USB3 Vision    An interface standard for industrial cameras. User Bits    Portions of VITC and LTC (time code) reserved for recording information of the user's choosing, e.g., date, scene numbers. USM    Unsharp masking Ut Video Codec Suite    A fast, lossless video codec, developed by Takeshi Umezawa and released under the free GNU General Public License. UV    Ultraviolet Light UXGA    Ultra Extended Graphics Array
V
VA-API    Video Acceleration API VAM    Video Asset Management Vari-speed    Increasing or decreasing tape speed to match the musical pitch of the playback. Variable Bitrate    Variable bitrate is a process of encoding files which varies the amount of output data based on the complexity of a given time segment. Varifocal Lens     VBR    Variable bitrate VC-1    A video coding format. Most of it was initially developed as Microsoft's proprietary video format Windows Media Video 9 in 2003. VCD    Video CD VCEG    Video Coding Experts Group VCR    Videocassette recorder VCR Deck    A tape recorder designed to record and playback video and audio material on magnetic tape. VDPAU    Video Decode and Presentation API for Unix Vectorscope    A type of oscilloscope used to measure a video signal's chrominance performance. Vertical Blanking Interval    The time between the end of one video field and the beginning of the next. Vertical Interval    The time between the end of one video field and the beginning of the next. Vertical Interval Timecode    A form of SMPTE timecode encoded on one scan line in a video signal. Vertical Mattes     Vertical Refresh Rate    The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. Vertical Scan Rate    The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. Vertical Sync    Synchronizing pulses used to define the end of one television field and the start of the next, occurring at a rate of approximately 59.94 Hz. Vertigo Effect    An in-camera effect that keeps the focus on a single point while zooming one way and dollying the other way. VESA    Video Electronics Standards Association VESA Digital Flat Panel    Interface standard specifying a video connector and signaling for flat-panel displays. It features 20 pins and uses the PanelLink protocol. VESA Enhanced Video Connector    A VESA standard intended to reduce the number of cables around a computer by incorporating video, audio, FireWire and USB into a single cable system. VESA Plug And Display    A video connector for digital monitors, such as flat panel displays and video projectors, ratified by VESA. Vestigial Sideband    A radio communication sideband that has been only partly cut off or suppressed. VFW    Video for Windows VFX    Visual effect VGA    Video Graphics Array VGA Connector    A three-row 15-pin DE-15 connector. The 15-pin VGA connector was provided on many video cards, computer monitors, laptop computers, projectors, and high definition television sets. VHD    Video High Density VHS    Video Home System VHS-C    VHS Compact VHS Compact    A compact VHS videocassette format, introduced by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) in 1982, and used primarily for consumer-grade compact analog recording camcorders. Video    An electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media. Video-in Video-out    A graphics port that enables some video cards to have bidirectional (input and output) analog video transfer through a mini-DIN connector, usually of the 9-pin variety, and a specialized splitter cable (which can sometimes also transfer analog audio). Video Acceleration API    A royalty-free API that allows applications such as VLC media player or GStreamer to use hardware video acceleration capabilities, usually provided by the graphics processing unit (GPU). Video Amplifier    Video amplifiers are devices that amplify the power of the video signals, using bandwidths that differ depending on the target. Video Asset Management    The use of a coherent combination of software and digital infrastructure to store, organize, and distribute large amounts of video content. Video Assist    The process of simultaneously recording filmed picture onto videotape by means of the same lens system in order to immediately evaluate a take as soon as it is completed. Video Blog    Blogging through video. Video Camera Tube    A device that captured images in television cameras. Video Capture    The process of converting an analog video signal—such as that produced by a video camera, DVD player, or television tuner—to digital video and sending it to local storage or to external circuitry. Videocassette    A cartridge containing a permanently encased videotape that winds and rewinds from reel-to-reel. Videocassette Recorder    Multifunction machine intended primarily for recording and playback of videotape stored in cassettes. Video CD    A format for video storage and playback on a standard compact disc.  Video Coding Experts Group    A working group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) concerned with video coding standards. Video Compression Picture Types    In the field of video compression, a video frame is compressed using different algorithms with different advantages and disadvantages, centered mainly around the amount of data compression. Videoconference    The technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time. Video Decode And Presentation API For Unix    A royalty-free application programming interface (API) as well as its implementation as free and open-source library (libvdpau) distributed under the MIT License. Videodisc    A flat disc of plastic or other material on which video signals are recorded. Videodiscs range in diameter from 3 in. to 12 in. and include the ca. 4 3/4 in. (12 cm.) DVD and video CD. Video Electronics Standards Association    A technical standards organization responsible for the computer industry's display standards. Video Field    One-half of a complete television picture consisting of one complete vertical scan of the video image containing 262.5 line for NTSC and 312.5 lines for PAL. Two fields make up a complete television picture frame. Video For Windows    A multimedia framework developed by Microsoft that allows Windows to play and encode digital video. Videographer    A video photographer who specializes in events like weddings. Video Graphics Array    A graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987. Videography    The process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e.g., videotape, direct to disk recording, or solid state storage) and even streaming media. Video High Density    A grooveless, plastic videodisc format, approximately 10 in. in diameter. Video Home System    A standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Video Interpreting Service    A video telecommunication service that allows deaf, hard-of-hearing, and speech-impaired individuals to communicate over video telephones via a sign language interpreter. Video Object    The container format in DVD-Video media. Video On Demand    A video media distribution system that allows users to access video entertainment without a traditional video entertainment device and without the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. Videophone    The technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time. Video Poetry    Poetry in video form. Video Printer    A special device used to capture a single frame of video to create a hard copy print. Video Projector    A display device which projects a video or computer image onto a large screen. Video Prompter    A device for displaying large, readable text on a partially transparent screen for video production. Video Quality    A measure of the perceived degradation of the video signal. Videoreel    Videotape that is not permanently encased. Video Relay Service    A video telecommunication service that allows deaf, hard-of-hearing, and speech-impaired individuals to communicate over video telephones via a sign language interpreter. Video Sculpture    A type of video installation that integrates video into an object, environment, site or performance. Video Sync    A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video. Video Synthesizer    A device that electronically creates a video signal. Videotape Format    A variety of formats are used to record video. They vary by tape width: (8mm, 1/2 inch, 3/4 inch, 1 inch), signal form: (composite, Y/C, component), data storage type (analog or digital) and signal standard (PAL, NTSC, SECAM). Video Tape Recorder    A tape recorder designed to record and playback video and audio material on magnetic tape. Videotelephony    The technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time. Video Toaster    Software/hardware developed by NewTek for the Amiga Computer. Made special effects affordable for the low budget producer. Video Wall    A special multi-monitor setup that consists of multiple monitors tiled together contiguously or overlapped in order to form one large screen. Vidicon    A video camera tube design in which the target material is a photoconductor. Viewfinder    The part of the camera you look through to see the image from your lens’ field of view. VIF    Visual Information Fidelity Vignette    Visual special effect whereby viewers see images through a perceived keyhole, heart shape, diamond, etc. Vignetting    Undesirable darkening at the corners of a picture, as if viewer's peering through a telescope, due to improper matching of the lens to the camera. VirtualDub    A free and open-source video capture and video processing utility for Microsoft Windows written by Avery Lee. Virtual Reality Modeling Language    A standard file format for representing 3-dimensional (3D) interactive vector graphics, designed particularly with the World Wide Web in mind. It has been superseded by X3D. Virtual Studio Technology    An audio plug-in software interface that integrates software synthesizers and effects units into digital audio workstations. Vision Mixer    A device used to select between several different video sources and, in some cases, compositing video sources together to create special effects. Vistavision    A 35mm film format with a large surface area and low grain. Visual Axis    An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she is looking at. Visual Cross-cutting    A technique used in movies to establish action happening at the same time. Visual Effect    A special visual technique used to enhance storytelling Visual Effects Supervisor    The head of the visual effects department who oversees all aspects of the visual effects process. Visual Information Fidelity    A full reference image quality assessment index. VITC    Vertical interval timecode VIVO    Video-in video-out VJ    VJing VJing    A broad designation for realtime visual performance. VLC Media Player    A free and open-source portable cross-platform media player software and streaming media server developed by the VideoLAN project. VLOG    Video Blog VO    Voiceover VOB    Video Object VOD    Video on demand Voice-over    A production technique where a voice that is not part of the narrative is used in a radio, television production, filmmaking, theatre, or other presentations. Voice Acting    The art of performing voice-overs or providing voices to represent a character or to provide information to an audience or user. Voiceover    Audio from an unseen narrator accompanying video, heard above background sound or music. Volume Unit Meter    A device displaying a representation of the signal level in audio equipment. Vorbis    An audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy audio compression. VP6    A proprietary lossy video compression format and video codec. VP8    An open and royalty-free video compression format created by On2 Technologies as a successor to VP7 and owned by Google from 2010. VP9    An open and royalty-free video coding format developed by Google. VRML    Virtual reality modeling language VRS    Video relay service VSB    Vestigial sideband VSFilter    An obsolete software add-on for Microsoft Windows that is able to read external subtitle files and superimposes them on a playing video file. VST    Virtual Studio Technology VSYNC    Vertical Sync VTR    Video tape recorder VU    VU meter Vulkan    A low-overhead, cross-platform 3D graphics and computing API. VU Meter    A device displaying a representation of the signal level in audio equipment.
W
  Watt Wagon-wheel Effect    An optical illusion in which a spoked wheel appears to rotate differently from its true rotation. Waist Shot    Defines any camera perspective between long shot and closeup, viewing the subjects from a medium distance. Walk And Talk    A storytelling technique used in filmmaking and television production in which a number of characters have a conversation while walking somewhere. Walla    Background ambience or noises added to create the illusion of sound taking place outside of the main action in a picture. Washout    The washout is an optical transition used for editing purposes that is similar to the fade. Waste    Shining a light on an object, then slowing turning the light away so that some of the light will miss or fall off the object. Watt    Measurement unit for electric power consumption. Watts To Lumens    To convert watts to lumens, multiply the power (P) in watts (W) with the luminous efficacy (η) in lumens per watt (lm/W). WAV    Waveform Audio File Format Waveform Audio File Format    An audio file format standard, developed by Microsoft and IBM, for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. Waveform Monitor    Specialized oscilloscope testing device providing a graphic display of a video signal's strength WavPack    A free and open-source lossless audio compression format. Webcast    A media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers WebM    An audiovisual media file format. It is primarily intended to offer a royalty-free alternative to use in the HTML5 video and the HTML5 audio elements. Wet Gate    A film gate that is submerged in liquid, used for film restoration and archival scanning. WGA Screenwriting Credit System    A credit system that covers all works under the jurisdiction of the Writers Guild of America, East (WGAE) and the Writers Guild of America, West (WGAW). Whip Pan    Extremely rapid camera movement from left to right or right to left, appearing as an image blur. White Balance    The process of capturing the correct colors for the type of available light. White Noise    A random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. White Point    A set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction. Wide-angle    Camera lens with short focal length and broad horizontal field of view. Wide Angle Lens    A lens that uses a grouping of glass to enable a shorter focal length than the physical body of the lens would normally permit. Wide Extended Graphics Array    A resolution of 1366 × 768 pixels and similar. Wide Gamut RGB    An RGB color space that offers a large gamut by using pure spectral primary colors. Wide Quad Extended Graphics Array    A display resolution of 2560 × 1600 pixels. Wide Quad HD    A display resolution of 2560 × 1440 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio. Wide Quad Super Extended Graphics Array    A display standard that can support a resolution up to 3200 × 2048 pixels, assuming a 1.5625:1 (25:16) aspect ratio. Wide Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array    A display standard that supports a resolution of 3840 × 2400 pixels, which provides a 16:10 aspect ratio. Wide QVGA    A resolution of 400 × 240 pixels. Widescreen    A general term for film presentation in which a film is shown in an aspect ratio of greater than 1.85 to 1 (16:9 on computer monitors.) Widescreen Ultra Extended Graphics Array    A resolution of 1920 × 1200 pixels. Wide Shot    A camera shot that shows the entire object or human figure and is usually intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings. Wide Super VGA    A resolution of 1024 × 576 or 1024 × 600 pixels. Widevine    A proprietary digital rights management technology developed by Google. Wiggle 3-D    Stereoscopy in which both images of a stereogram are animated. Wiggle Stereoscopy    Stereoscopy in which both images of a stereogram are animated. Wild Line    Audio elements that are not recorded synchronously with the picture. Wild Sound    Audio elements that are not recorded synchronously with the picture. Wild Track    Audio elements that are not recorded synchronously with the picture. Williams Process    A matte creation technique patented by the American cinematographer Frank D. Williams in 1918. Windmill Illusion    A visual illusion in which the blades of a windmill appear to reverse the direction of their rotation. Window Dub    A videotape in which a "window" displaying the time code count on the tape is superimposed over part of the picture. Windowing    The video slippage that sometimes results from a loosely wound spool of tape in a VCR. Windows Media    A discontinued multimedia framework for media creation and distribution for Microsoft Windows. Windows Media Audio    A series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft. Windows Media High Definition Video    The marketing name for high definition videos encoded using Microsoft Windows Media Video 9 codecs. Windows Media Player Playlist    A computer file format that stores multimedia playlists. Windows Media Video    A series of video codecs and their corresponding video coding formats developed by Microsoft. Windscreen    Sponge-like microphone shield thwarts undesirable noise from wind and rapid mike movement. Windshield    Sponge-like microphone shield thwarts undesirable noise from wind and rapid mike movement. Wipe    An optical transition effect in which one image is replaced by another with a boundry edge that moves in a selected pattern across the frame. Wireless Microphone    A microphone that uses a small radio transmitter to transmit the audio signal to the receiver. WMA    Windows Media Audio WMF    Windows Media WMV    Windows Media Video WMV HD    Windows Media High Definition Video Wobble 3-D    Stereoscopy in which both images of a stereogram are animated. Word Clock    A clock signal used to synchronize devices, such as digital audio tape machines and compact disc players, which interconnect via digital audio signals. Working Master    Any positive duplicate picture, sound track print, or magnetic duplicate which is intended for use in the editing process. Workprint    Any positive duplicate picture, sound track print, or magnetic duplicate which is intended for use in the editing process. Workstation    This term generally refers to a disk-based audio recording and editing system. Worm's-eye View    A view of an object from below, as though the observer were a worm; the opposite of a bird's-eye view. Wow    Repetitive but slow variations in recording or playback tape speed. Wow And Flutter    The deviation of frequency resulting from irregular motion in the recording or from deformation of the recording medium. WPL    Windows Media Player Playlist WQSXGA    Wide Quad Super Extended Graphics Array WQUXGA    Wide Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array WQVGA    A resolution of 400 × 240 pixels. WQXGA    Wide Quad Extended Graphics Array WQXGA+    A resolution of 3200 × 1800 pixels. Wrap    To finish shooting at the end of the day or the end of the production. Writer     WSVGA    A resolution of 1024 × 576 or 1024 × 600 pixels. WSXGA    A resolution of 1440 × 900 pixels. WUXGA    Widescreen Ultra Extended Graphics Array WXGA    Wide Extended Graphics Array WXGA+    A resolution of 1440 × 900 pixels.
X
X-Video Bitstream Acceleration    An extension of the X video extension (Xv) for the X Window System on Linux operating-systems. X-Video Motion Compensation    An extension of the X video extension (Xv) for the X Window System. X-Y Pattern    A pair of cardioid microphones or elements aimed in crossed directions which feed two channels for stereo pickup. XAVC    A recording format that was introduced by Sony on October 30, 2012. XCU    Extreme Close Up XDCAM    A series of products for digital recording using random access solid-state memory media, introduced by Sony in 2003. Xenon    A high-intensity light, with a polished parabolic reflector. XGA    Extended Graphics Array XGA+    Extended Graphics Array Plus XLR    XLR connector XLR4    Four-pin XLR connectors are used in a variety of applications. XLR5    Five-pin XLR connectors are the standard for DMX512 digital lighting control. XLR6    Six-pin XLR connectors are used for dual channel intercom systems and stage lighting control applications. XLR7    Seven-pin XLR connectors are used to connect some valve (tube) condenser microphones to their power supplies (carrying signal, polarisation voltage, heater, and HT). XLR Connector    A circular connector used in professional audio, video, and stage lighting equipment. XML Shareable Playlist Format    An XML-based playlist format for digital media, sponsored by the Xiph.Org Foundation. XSPF    XML Shareable Playlist Format XV    X video extension Xvid    A video codec library following the MPEG-4 video coding standard, specifically MPEG-4 Part 2 Advanced Simple Profile (ASP). XVideo    A video output mechanism for the X Window System. X Video Extension    A video output mechanism for the X Window System. XVMC    X-Video Motion Compensation
Y
Y/C    A signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. YCbCr    A family of color spaces used as a part of the color image pipeline in video and digital photography systems. YDbDr    The color space used in the SECAM analog terrestrial color television broadcasting standard Yoke     YPbPr    YPbPr is the analog video signal carried by component video cable in consumer electronics. The green cable carries Y, the blue cable carries PB and the red cable carries PR. YULS    YUVsoft's Lossless Video Codec YUV    A video system employing luminance and two chroma components directly related to the red and blue components. YUVsoft's Lossless Video Codec    YULS or YUVsoft's Lossless Video Codec, a lossless video codec developed by YUVsoft, was designed to produce highly compressed lossless video.
Z
Zebra    A professional feature of professional video cameras that use stripe patterns to identify problematic areas of the image. Zebra Function    A professional feature of professional video cameras that use stripe patterns to identify problematic areas of the image. Zebra Patterning    A professional feature of professional video cameras that use stripe patterns to identify problematic areas of the image. Zebra Stripes    A professional feature of professional video cameras that use stripe patterns to identify problematic areas of the image. Zero Cut    A method of making rolls of film (usually negative) by overlapping multiple frames. Zoetrope     Zograscope    An optical device for magnifying and enhancing flat pictures with an added sense of depth. Zolly Shot    An in-camera effect that keeps the focus on a single point while zooming one way and dollying the other way. Zonal Cavity Method    A simplified method to calculate the light level in a room. Zoom    Variance of focal length, bringing subject into and out of closeup range. Zoom Happy    One who indulges in the gratification of zooming in and out to the torment of viewers. Common in home movies. Zooming    A camera shot that magnifies the view of the subject while the camera itself remains stationary. Zoom Lens    A mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens. Zoom Ratio    Range of a lens' focal length, from most "zoomed in" field of view to most "zoomed out." Zoom Shot    A camera shot that magnifies the view of the subject while the camera itself remains stationary.
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