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GLOSSARY

The Digital Video Dictionary

Video Production Terms Explained

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1080i     A combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video. [Read the fulll article…]
1080p     A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. [Read the fulll article…]
180-degree rule     An imaginary line drawn across two subjects, setting a boundary for the camera angles. The action axis is used to anchor the continuity of action on screen. [Read the fulll article…]
480i     A vertical resolution of 480 lines, and the i identifies it as an interlaced resolution. [Read the fulll article…]
480p     A vertical resolution of 480 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 640 pixels and 4:3 aspect ratio or a horizontal resolution of 854 or less. [Read the fulll article…]
4K UHD     Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. [Read the fulll article…]
576i     A standard-definition video mode originally used for terrestrial television in most countries of the world where the utility frequency for electric power distribution is 50 Hz. [Read the fulll article…]
576p     A vertical resolution of 576 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 720 or 704 pixels. [Read the fulll article…]
720p     A progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). [Read the fulll article…]
8K UHD     Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. [Read the fulll article…]
A-roll     Main footage used in production. Contrast with B-roll. [Read the fulll article…]
Above the Line (atl)     The creative elements of a production such as the writer, producer, director and actors. [Read the fulll article…]
Accent lighting     A light unit that emphasizes one subject. [Read the fulll article…]
Acoustics     The science and study of recorded or transmitted sound waves. [Read the fulll article…]
Action axis     An imaginary line drawn across two subjects, setting a boundary for the camera angles. The action axis is used to anchor the continuity of action on screen. [Read the fulll article…]
Action Cutting     The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Advanced Television Systems Committee Standards (atsc)     Name of the North American organization that sets the standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks. Replaces the analog NTSC standards. [Read the fulll article…]
Aerial Shot     A shot taken from an airborne device, generally while moving. This technique has gained popularity in recent years due to the growing availability of drones. [Read the fulll article…]
After Effects (ae)     After Effects is to video editing what Photoshop is to image manipulation: an all-encompassing application with a professional toolset designed for anything from titling to character animation, compositing and more. [Read the fulll article…]
Aliasing     A side effect of digital signal processing that causes distortion or unwanted artifacts in the reconstruction process. Aliasing can affect both the video and the audio signals. [Read the fulll article…]
Alternating Current (ac)     An electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. [Read the fulll article…]
Ambient lighting     General, non-directional, room light not supplied on purpose by the photographer. [Read the fulll article…]
Ambient noise     The total sound in a given area which is particular to that space. [Read the fulll article…]
Amplitude     The strength of an electronic signal as measure by its waveform height. [Read the fulll article…]
Amplitude Distortion (ad)     The nonlinear relation of input and output induced harmonics which is a function of voltage fluctuations or power consumption. [Read the fulll article…]
Analog     Opposite of digital. The term refers to the recording (storage and measurement) of an infinitely variable signal gathered from a physical source. In electronics, analog signals are generally acquired through the Composite, S-Video, or Component Video connectors. [Read the fulll article…]
Analog Recording     A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal is a physical representation of the waveform of the original signal. [Read the fulll article…]
Analog-to-digital converter (adc)     An electronic component that converts an analog signal to a digital signal. ADC accuracy are rated based on their bandwidth (sampling rate) and signal-to-noise ratio. [Read the fulll article…]
Anamorphic     The cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio. [Read the fulll article…]
Anamorphic widescreen (fha)     A process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium with a narrower aspect ratio. [Read the fulll article…]
Angle of View (aov)     The size of the field covered by a lens, measured in degrees. [Read the fulll article…]
Answer print     The first print combining picture and sound which is submitted by the laboratory for the customer's approval. [Read the fulll article…]
Anti-Aliasing (aa)     Filtering of erroneous frequencies that are created during the analog to digital conversion process. [Read the fulll article…]
Aperture     A small, variable-size hole in the camera that allows light to reach the sensor. Apertures are expressed with the symbols f/ followed by the ratio between the focal length and the diameter of the hole. Common aperture settings are f/11, f/5.6 and f/4. [Read the fulll article…]
Archive footage     Video footage that can be used again in other films. [Read the fulll article…]
Artifact     Any undesired or unintended alteration in data introduced during the processing of the digital video signal. Most digital artifacts are the result of problems with compression, aliasing and/or error diffusion. [Read the fulll article…]
ASA     The exposure index or speed rating of a film which denotes the film's sensitivity. [Read the fulll article…]
Aspect Ratio     The proportional relationship between the image's width and its height. The most common video aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.3:1) and 16:9 (1.7:1). [Read the fulll article…]
Asperity Noise     Noise that is caused by minute imperfections in the surface of a recording medium. [Read the fulll article…]
Associate producer (ap)     The person who acts as the liaison between a production company and the various personnel involved in the post production process. [Read the fulll article…]
Associational Editing     Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. [Read the fulll article…]
Associative editing     Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. [Read the fulll article…]
Asynchronous Sound     Sound which is indigenous to the action but not precisely synchronized with the action [Read the fulll article…]
Atmosphere     Extras who are staged and photographed to portray normal human traffic needed to add detail in various script situations. [Read the fulll article…]
Attenuation     To reduce a signal's strength. [Read the fulll article…]
Audible Spectrum     When wave motion in the atmosphere has a frequency that lies between 20 and 15,000 Hz it produces a sound which is apparent to the average human. [Read the fulll article…]
Audio effect     A recorded or electronically produced sound that matches the visual action taking place onscreen. [Read the fulll article…]
Audio mixing     The result of combining combining audio signals from different sources, such as microphones, instruments, recordings, etc. [Read the fulll article…]
Audio multicore cable     A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals [Read the fulll article…]
Audio sequencer     The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives, stores and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Audio Spectrum     When wave motion in the atmosphere has a frequency that lies between 20 and 15,000 Hz it produces a sound which is apparent to the average human. [Read the fulll article…]
Audio-to-video synchronization     The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech. [Read the fulll article…]
Automatic Dialog Replacement (adr)     The process of re-recording dialog in the studio in synchronization with the picture. [Read the fulll article…]
Automatic Gain Control (agc)     A circuit that automatically adjusts the gain of an amplifier based on the relative strength of the input signal. Used to maintain an even output when the audio signal is too low or the scene is poorly lighted. [Read the fulll article…]
Automatic Slating     A camera attachment which records the film shot and take numbers and a visible sync mark which corresponds to a tone fed to an audio recorder. [Read the fulll article…]
AV-sync     The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech. [Read the fulll article…]
Available light     General, non-directional, room light not supplied on purpose by the photographer. [Read the fulll article…]
B reel     Supplemental footage that can be used during production to inter-cut with, and supplement the main shot. [Read the fulll article…]
B-roll     Supplemental footage that can be used during production to inter-cut with, and supplement the main shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Baby Legs     A short tripod. [Read the fulll article…]
Background noise     The total sound in a given area which is particular to that space. [Read the fulll article…]
Backing Track     Prerecorded accompaniment for a singer or voiceover actor who then listens through headphones to a replay as he/she performs. [Read the fulll article…]
Backlight     A light which is generally mounted behind a subject to light the subject's hair and shoulders without illuminating a subject's front. [Read the fulll article…]
Band-stop filter     A notch filter is a band-stop filter with a narrow stopband (high Q factor). [Read the fulll article…]
Bandwidth     The maximum amount of bits/second that can travel along a network or channel. Most videos players will allow for automatic scaling a video stream to match the available bandwidth. [Read the fulll article…]
Barndoors     Folding doors which are mounted on to the front of a light unit in order to control illumination. [Read the fulll article…]
Beat     A periodic variation of amplitude resulting from the addition of two slightly different frequencies. [Read the fulll article…]
Bed     Background music used underneath a narrator or foreground dialog. Primarily applied to commercial radio or television spots. [Read the fulll article…]
Beep     Short duration sound track tone aligned to a point on the film for precise reference in synchronization in the editing and printing processes. [Read the fulll article…]
Bit (bit)     A basic unit of information. Refers to a binary digit (0 or 1) used to store or represent data. [Read the fulll article…]
Bit rate     The rate of binary digits flowing in a digital data-processing system. Bit rates are expressed as the number of bits per second (bps or Kbps) traveling through a digital stream. [Read the fulll article…]
Board     A device to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. [Read the fulll article…]
Bokeh     The visual quality of the out-of-focus (blurred) areas of a photographic image. [Read the fulll article…]
Boom     A telescoping arm for a camera or microphone. [Read the fulll article…]
Boom Microphone     A directional microphones mounted on a long pole or arm, positioned over the scene. [Read the fulll article…]
Brightness     The perceived amount of light coming from a given source. [Read the fulll article…]
Broad     A rectangular open-faced light which is used for general fill or for cyc illumination. [Read the fulll article…]
Broadband     A wide bandwidth channel which transports multiple signals and traffic types. Broadband can refer to media such coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. [Read the fulll article…]
Brute     A brute arc light, usually 225 amps DC powered. [Read the fulll article…]
BT.709     A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. [Read the fulll article…]
Burn-in Time Code     A videotape in which a "window" displaying the time code count on the tape is superimposed over part of the picture. [Read the fulll article…]
Bus     A mixing network that combines the output of two or more channels. [Read the fulll article…]
C mount     A standard mount interface for lenses used in small cameras. Internal diameter: 1"; thread pitch 1/32"; flange-to-image plane distance: 0.69". [Read the fulll article…]
C-stand     A stand primarily used to position light modifiers, such as silks, nets, or flags, in front of light sources. [Read the fulll article…]
Cable box     A device that is connected to a television so that it can receive digital signals. [Read the fulll article…]
Call Sheet     A form which refers to all of the scenes to be filmed and all of the personnel and equipment required for shooting on a particular day. [Read the fulll article…]
Camera Angle     The view point chosen from which to photograph a subject. [Read the fulll article…]
Camera Blocking     The process of notating the changing position of the camera, lens size, and focus during a particular scene. [Read the fulll article…]
Camera jib     A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other. [Read the fulll article…]
Camlock     A feeder cable connector which is similar to a Tweco, but with a more positive locking mechanism which is easier to disconnect. [Read the fulll article…]
Candela (cd)     The luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction. [Read the fulll article…]
Canted angle     A device or process whereby the camera is angled so that the horizontal frame line is not parallel to the horizon. [Read the fulll article…]
Canted Frame     A device or process whereby the camera is angled so that the horizontal frame line is not parallel to the horizon. [Read the fulll article…]
Capacitance     An electrical component's ability to store electrical charges. [Read the fulll article…]
CC Filter     Color compensating filters made in precise density values of the primary and secondary colors. [Read the fulll article…]
Charge-coupled device (ccd)     A semiconductor chip with a light-sensitive grid used for converting images to electrical signals. CCD is the core technology behind digital photography and video. [Read the fulll article…]
Chroma     The chromaticity, or value of hue and saturation, for a given color. [Read the fulll article…]
Chromatic aberration (ca)     Problem caused by the camera lens' inability to bring the colors to a focus at the same point. [Read the fulll article…]
Chromaticity     Measurement of color quality expressed by the combination of hue and saturation. [Read the fulll article…]
Chrominance (c)     The chromaticity, or value of hue and saturation, for a given color. [Read the fulll article…]
Cinemascope     A trade name for a system of anamorphic widescreen projection. [Read the fulll article…]
Clacker     A device to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. [Read the fulll article…]
Clapboard     A device to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. [Read the fulll article…]
Clapper     A device to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. [Read the fulll article…]
Click track     A prerecorded track of electronic metronomic clicks used to ensure proper timing of music to be recorded. [Read the fulll article…]
Clipping     The distortion of an audio or video signal, resulting in the high amplitude peaks being cut off. Clipping is often caused by the overloading of amplifier circuits. [Read the fulll article…]
Close up (cu)     A type of shot taken at close range that tightly frames the subject. [Read the fulll article…]
Coaxial cable (coax)     A specialized wire (cable) consisting of an inner conductor surrounded by multiple layers of insulating material. Used to carry high frequency electrical signals with low losses, such as telegraph, telephone, television, and Internet signals. [Read the fulll article…]
Codec     Refers to a combination of coder and decoder software or hardware. A codec encodes and/or decodes a digital data stream or signal. [Read the fulll article…]
Color compensating filter     Color compensating filters made in precise density values of the primary and secondary colors. [Read the fulll article…]
Color Depth     The number of bits used that a given device or system can use to represent the color of a pixel. Common color depths include 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit. [Read the fulll article…]
Color grading     The process of improving the appearance of an image for presentation in different environments on different devices. [Read the fulll article…]
Color Temperature     A light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source. [Read the fulll article…]
Color Timing     The process of improving the appearance of an image for presentation in different environments on different devices. [Read the fulll article…]
Colorburst     In a color television signal, a generated analog video signal used to keep the chrominance sub-carrier synchronized. [Read the fulll article…]
Colorfulness     An attribute of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity. [Read the fulll article…]
Compact Disc (cd)     Digitally encoded disc capable of containing more than one hour of audio at a sampling frequency of 44.1 khz. The data is read by a laser beam. [Read the fulll article…]
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (cmos)     A technology for constructing integrated circuits. Used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. [Read the fulll article…]
Composite Video (sd)     A composite (analog) video transmission carrier of standard definition video over a single channel. [Read the fulll article…]
Compositing     The combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. [Read the fulll article…]
Composition     Visual make-up of a video picture, including such variables as balance, framing, field of view and texture all aesthetic considerations. Combined qualities form an image that’s pleasing to view. [Read the fulll article…]
Compression     An encoding process that results in a decrease in the number of bits required to store data. [Read the fulll article…]
Contrast     The difference in luminance intensity, or color, that allows objects in an image distinguishable. [Read the fulll article…]
Contrast ratio     A measure of the difference in luminance intensity, or color, that allows objects in an image distinguishable. [Read the fulll article…]
Crop factor     The crop factor, format factor or focal length multiplier of an image sensor format is the ratio of the dimensions of a camera's imaging area compared to a reference format; most often, this term is applied to digital cameras, relative to 35 mm film format as a reference. [Read the fulll article…]
Cropping     The removal of unwanted areas from a video or still image. [Read the fulll article…]
Crossfade     The gradual mix of sound sources accomplished by the simultaneous manipulation of two or more mix console faders. [Read the fulll article…]
Crosstalk     The visual or auditory result of the coupling of electronic circuits across separate channels. [Read the fulll article…]
Cue     To determine the desired initial playback point in a piece of recorded music. [Read the fulll article…]
Cut     The selection and assembly of the various shots or sequences for a reel of film. [Read the fulll article…]
Cutaway     A single shot inserted into a sequence of shots that momentarily interrupts the flow of action, usually introducing a pertinent detail. [Read the fulll article…]
Cutting on action     The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Cyan     A blue-green color which is the complementary color to red. [Read the fulll article…]
Cyc Light     Row lights for evenly illuminating a cyclorama or other background. [Read the fulll article…]
Cyclorama     Permanent background built in a studio which is nearly always coved or curved at the floor line to create a shadowless, unending backdrop. [Read the fulll article…]
Dailies     This refers to daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes. [Read the fulll article…]
Data-rate Units     A way to express the average number of bits (bitrate) passed between two points in a fixed timeframe. Most common units are bit/s, kbps, Mpbs and Gbps. [Read the fulll article…]
DCI 4K     Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. [Read the fulll article…]
De-essing     An exaggerated hissing in voice patterns. [Read the fulll article…]
Dead band     A place in which a sound waves are canceled by reflections arriving out of phase with the wanted signal thus creating an area of silence or poor audibility. [Read the fulll article…]
Dead spot     A place in which a sound waves are canceled by reflections arriving out of phase with the wanted signal thus creating an area of silence or poor audibility. [Read the fulll article…]
Dead Sync     In film editing, an editorial term meaning that sound and picture elements are perfectly aligned.  [Read the fulll article…]
Dead zone     A place in which a sound waves are canceled by reflections arriving out of phase with the wanted signal thus creating an area of silence or poor audibility. [Read the fulll article…]
Decibel (db)     In audio, a measurement of sound pressure level. [Read the fulll article…]
Decoder     A circuit or chip in cameras and other input devices that converts video signals from analog to digital. [Read the fulll article…]
Deep Focus     A style of cinematography and staging that uses relatively wide angle lenses and small lens apertures by maintaining objects in the extreme background and foreground simultaneously focused. [Read the fulll article…]
Degausser     A device used to erase recordings on magnetic tapes and films or to demagnetize magnetic recording heads. [Read the fulll article…]
Deinterlacing     The process of converting interlaced video, such as common analog television signals or 1080i format HDTV signals, into a non-interlaced form. [Read the fulll article…]
Depth of Field (dof)     In an image , the distance between the closest and the farthest objects that are acceptably sharp. [Read the fulll article…]
Depth of Focus     The distance between the camera lens and the film or CCD that can be altered without blurring the iimage. [Read the fulll article…]
Desibilizing     An exaggerated hissing in voice patterns. [Read the fulll article…]
Dialogue track     A sound track which carries lip sync speech. [Read the fulll article…]
Diaphragm     In a camera, a component designed to control amount of peripheral light going through the lens aperture. [Read the fulll article…]
Diegetic sound     The sound that is present and/or captured during the recording of the video. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Audio Tape (dat)     A signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Audio Workstation (daw)     Two-channel digital audio has become increasingly common as a professional master reference and for use in field recording. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Display Working Group (ddwf)     A group whose purpose was to define and maintain the Digital Visual Interface standard. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Recording     A method of recording in which samples of the original analog signal are encoded on tape or disk as binary information for storage or processing. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Signal     The result of the conversion of the original (analog) video signal into a pattern of bits. A digital signal has a discrete value at each sampling point, and its precision is a factor of how many samples get converted per unit of time. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Single Lens Reflex (dslr)     A digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, as opposed to photographic film. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital television     Can refer to the digital video and audio signals that are broadcasted, or the digital television sets that decode the incoming signals. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Visual Interface (dvi)     A video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller, to a display device, such as a computer monitor. [Read the fulll article…]
Digital Zoom     A method of decreasing the apparent angle of view of a digital photographic or video image. [Read the fulll article…]
Digitization     The conversion process that encode continuous video stream into discrete samples and store the result in a numerical format. [Read the fulll article…]
Dimmer     A device for varying power to the lights. [Read the fulll article…]
Direct current (dc)     The flow of charged particles in one unchanging direction. [Read the fulll article…]
Display device     An appliance, such as a monitor or television, that present the video signal in visual or tactile form. [Read the fulll article…]
Dissolve     A transition between two scenes where the first merges imperceptibly into the second. [Read the fulll article…]
Distortion     The deviation in shape or structure from the original shape or structure of an image or sound. [Read the fulll article…]
Distribution amplifier (da)     A device that amplifies and distributes an original signal to multiple, isolated locations (outputs) without distortion: a WI-fi router, a television station antenna, etc. [Read the fulll article…]
Dolby Digital     Audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. [Read the fulll article…]
Dolby SR     A noise reduction format was developed by Dolby Laboratories and has been in common use in professional audio since 1986 and in cinema audio since the late 1980s. [Read the fulll article…]
Drift     Flutter which occurs at random rates. [Read the fulll article…]
Drop-In     The process of inserting recorded audio by playing up to a chosen point and switching from playback to record mode. [Read the fulll article…]
Dub     The copy resulting from a dubbing process. [Read the fulll article…]
Dubbing     A process used in filmmaking and video production in which additional or supplementary recordings are "mixed" with original production sound to create the finished soundtrack. [Read the fulll article…]
Dupe     A copy of a film negative. Short for duplicate negative. [Read the fulll article…]
Dutch angle     A device or process whereby the camera is angled so that the horizontal frame line is not parallel to the horizon. [Read the fulll article…]
Dutch tilt     A device or process whereby the camera is angled so that the horizontal frame line is not parallel to the horizon. [Read the fulll article…]
Dynamic Distortion     Alteration of volume range of a sound when it is transmitted. [Read the fulll article…]
Dynamic range (dr)     The ratio between the largest and smallest values of an audio or video digital signal. Usually expressed in decibels. [Read the fulll article…]
Dynamic range compression     Alteration of volume range of a sound when it is transmitted. [Read the fulll article…]
Ear     A flag up on the side of a lighting unit to block light. [Read the fulll article…]
Echo     A reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound. [Read the fulll article…]
Edit Decision List (edl)     A list that contains an ordered list of reel and timecode data representing where each video clip can be obtained in order to conform the final cut. [Read the fulll article…]
Edit Master     The recording media containing the completed/edited program. [Read the fulll article…]
Edit Points     The beginning and end points of an edit when a video program or soundtrack is being assembled. [Read the fulll article…]
Effective Output Level     The microphone sensitivity rating defined as the ratio in dB of the power available relative to sound pressure. [Read the fulll article…]
Eisensteinian montage     Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. [Read the fulll article…]
Electric arc     A lighting unit that generates illumination from an electrical arc between two carbon electrodes. [Read the fulll article…]
Envelope     Description of how a sound changes over time. [Read the fulll article…]
Equalization (eq)     The sound in a room. It is recorded and intercut with dialogue to smooth out any editing points. [Read the fulll article…]
Ess sound     An exaggerated hissing in voice patterns. [Read the fulll article…]
Establishing shot     Opening image of a program or scene. [Read the fulll article…]
European Broadcasting Union (ebu)     Usually refers to the 25 FPS time code standard adopted by European nations. [Read the fulll article…]
Exposure     The amount of light per unit area reaching the image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance. A higher exposure will result in a brighter picture. [Read the fulll article…]
Extreme Close Up (xcu)     The shot is so tight that only a detail of the subject, such as someone's eyes, can be seen. [Read the fulll article…]
F-number     Setting of diaphragm that determines amount of light transmitted by camera lens. [Read the fulll article…]
Fade     The visual transition between an image and a black screen. [Read the fulll article…]
Fauxtography     Digitally manipulated photograph. Alternatively: using a camera and telling your subject you’re taking a photo, but secretly taking a video! [Read the fulll article…]
Feed Lines     Lines of dialogue which are read outside camera range for the benefit of an 'on camera' or 'on microphone' actor or voice over artist. [Read the fulll article…]
Fequency Discrimination     Exaggeration or diminution of particular frequencies in relation to others. [Read the fulll article…]
FHD     A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. [Read the fulll article…]
Field of view (fov)     A measurement of the subject area visible to the camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Field rate     The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. [Read the fulll article…]
File footage     Video footage that can be used again in other films. [Read the fulll article…]
File format     The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame. [Read the fulll article…]
Fill Leader     Film leader used to fill in the blanks in picture workprint [Read the fulll article…]
Film frame     One of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture. [Read the fulll article…]
Film noir     Usually refers to the classic black and white film noir style used in detective mysteries, typically employing hard lighting and dark, low key lighting. [Read the fulll article…]
Film score     The original-music composition for a motion picture or television production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited. [Read the fulll article…]
Filter     A transparent material having the ability to absorb certain wavelengths of light and transmit others. [Read the fulll article…]
Flicker     The alternation of light and dark which can be visually perceived. [Read the fulll article…]
Flip-over     An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right. [Read the fulll article…]
Float     Periodic vertical movement of the image which occurs as a result of mechanical faults in the camera, printer, or projector. [Read the fulll article…]
Flood     The widest beam spread on a lensed light. [Read the fulll article…]
Flop-over     An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right. [Read the fulll article…]
Flutter     The rapid variation of amplitude, phase, or frequency that causes the video to move back and forth very rapidly. [Read the fulll article…]
Flux     An amount of light which is present as measured in lumens. [Read the fulll article…]
Foamcore     Polystyrene which is sandwiched between paper. [Read the fulll article…]
Focal length     A measure of the distance, in millimeters, between the optical centre of the lens and the camera’s sensor. [Read the fulll article…]
Focus     The area on which compositional elements converge. Typically refers to the sharpest elements in the image. [Read the fulll article…]
Focus Pull     Shifting focus between subjects in the background and foreground so a viewer’s attention moves from subject to subject as the focus shifts. [Read the fulll article…]
Foley     The art of reproducing and creating sounds for film. [Read the fulll article…]
Follow Focus     A control mechanism that allows you to easily make changes on the focus ring of your camera lens. [Read the fulll article…]
Format     The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame. [Read the fulll article…]
Frame rate (fps)     A measure of the number of frames displayed per second in a video. [Read the fulll article…]
Framing     Act of composing a shot in a camcorder’s viewfinder for desired content, angle and field of view. [Read the fulll article…]
Freeze Frame     An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated so as to appead stationary when it is projected. [Read the fulll article…]
Frequency     The number of times a signal vibrates each second as expressed in cycles per second (cps) or Hertz (Hz). [Read the fulll article…]
Frequency response     A measure of the effectiveness with which a circuit, device, or system processes and transmits signals fed into it, as a function of the signal frequency. [Read the fulll article…]
Fresnel lens     A type of lens placed in front of lamps in order to focus the light given off into a controllable beam. [Read the fulll article…]
Full HD     A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. [Read the fulll article…]
Full height anamorphic     A process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium with a narrower aspect ratio. [Read the fulll article…]
Fushia     A red-purple color which is the complementary color of green. [Read the fulll article…]
Gaffer     The chief lighting technician for a production who is in charge of the electrical department. [Read the fulll article…]
Gaffer tape     A type of non-damaging, super durable tape used on film sets, most often by the gaffer and grip department. [Read the fulll article…]
Gain     A measurement of the ratio between two quantities. In audio and video, gain refers to a measure of the increase in loudness, level or volume relative to the input signal. [Read the fulll article…]
Gamma     The degree of contrast in a negative or print. [Read the fulll article…]
Gamma correction     A measure of the correction applied to the video display to compensate for the input signal. [Read the fulll article…]
Gate     The aperture assembly at which the film is exposed in a camera, printer, or projector. [Read the fulll article…]
Gel     A piece of colored plastic used on lights. Gels allow light to pass through while changing the color tone of the light itself. [Read the fulll article…]
Genlock     A device which enables a composite display (usually a TV) to combine two signals simultaneously by locking one while processing the other. Acronymn for "generator locking device." [Read the fulll article…]
Ghosting     A copy of the transmitted image super-imposed with an offset on top of the main image. [Read the fulll article…]
Gigabyte (gb)     A unit for measuring computer memory capacity, equivalent to 1,000 megabytes. [Read the fulll article…]
Grayscale     An image composed exclusively of shades of gray to represent the intensity (light.) [Read the fulll article…]
H.264      The name of the most common video compression standard for high-definition digital video for resolutions up to 8K. Also known as MPEG-4 AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10. [Read the fulll article…]
Halogen lamp     Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. [Read the fulll article…]
HD Ready     A progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). [Read the fulll article…]
Headroom     Space between the top of a subject’s head and a monitor’s upper-screen edge. [Read the fulll article…]
Hertz (hz)     The unit of measurement for the number of cycles per second. 1Hz = 1 cycle per second. [Read the fulll article…]
High dynamic range (hdr)     The compositing of two images, one that properly exposes the highlights, and another that properly exposes the dark areas. When composited together, you get a properly exposed image. [Read the fulll article…]
High-Definition Media Interface (hdmi)     A digital connector carrying both audio and video signal on consumer electronics and modern computers. [Read the fulll article…]
High-definition television (hdtv)     Refers to any or all of television system formats (analog or digital) that can display at a higher resolution than those of old standards. [Read the fulll article…]
High-Pass Filter (hpf)     An electronic filter used in various audio circuits to attenuate all frequencies below a chosen frequency. [Read the fulll article…]
Hiss     A random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. [Read the fulll article…]
Hot shoe     A mounting point at the top of some cameras that allow you to attach a flash unit, microphones or other accessories. [Read the fulll article…]
HSL/HSV (hsl)     Acronymns for Hue, Saturation, Lightness (HSL) and Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) . HSL and HSV are color space naming conventions that allow for selecting colors more intuitively than by entering RGB or CMYK numbers. [Read the fulll article…]
Hue     The shade or tint of a color. [Read the fulll article…]
Hum     A low, steady sound caused by electrical interference. [Read the fulll article…]
Hydrargyrum Medium-arc Iodide (hmi)     Device that emits light via pressurized mercury vapor and metal halides. Ideal for imitating daylight, they keep relatively cool and have a very high light output. HMI light has a color temperature of around 5600K. [Read the fulll article…]
Image Sensor     A sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current that convey the information. [Read the fulll article…]
Impedance     The measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. The term complex impedance may be used interchangeably. [Read the fulll article…]
Incoming Scene     The second scene to appear in a dissolve or wipe effect. [Read the fulll article…]
Inductance     The resistance of a coil of wire to rapidly fluctuating currents which increases with frequency. [Read the fulll article…]
Insert     A shot of part of a scene as filmed from a different angle and/or focal length from the master shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Insert Editing     A single shot inserted into a sequence of shots that momentarily interrupts the flow of action, usually introducing a pertinent detail. [Read the fulll article…]
Intercutting     In editing method whereby related shots are inserted into a series of other shots for the purpose of contrast or for some other effect. [Read the fulll article…]
Interference     A phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude. [Read the fulll article…]
Interlaced     A technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display. From a viewer perspective, Interlaced video enhances motion perception and reduces flicker. [Read the fulll article…]
ISO     A camera setting in the digital cameras that changes how sensitive the sensor is to light. [Read the fulll article…]
J-cut     A type of cut in which the sound of the next scene precedes the picture. [Read the fulll article…]
Jib     A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other. [Read the fulll article…]
Jib arm     A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other. [Read the fulll article…]
Jitter     The displacement of random horizontal lines in video frames. Jitter is the result of a loss of data between devices due to interference, cross-talk and other network disruptions. [Read the fulll article…]
Joint     A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording. [Read the fulll article…]
Jump cut     An abrupt transition without continuity. [Read the fulll article…]
Kelvin (k)     The unit of measurement used for color temperatures. [Read the fulll article…]
Key Light     The main light on a subject. [Read the fulll article…]
Kick     An object with a shine or reflection on it from another object. [Read the fulll article…]
kilohertz (khz)     The unit of measurement for the number of cycles per second. 1Hz = 1 cycle per second. [Read the fulll article…]
Kiss     A light that gently brushes a subject. [Read the fulll article…]
L-cut     A type of cut in which the picture changes but the audio continues. [Read the fulll article…]
Latitude     The extent to which a light-sensitive material can be overexposed or underexposed and still achieve an acceptable result. [Read the fulll article…]
Lavalier microphone (lav)     A small clip-on microphone that attaches to the subject’s clothing. [Read the fulll article…]
Layback     Transfer of the finished audio mix back onto the video edit master. [Read the fulll article…]
Layoff     Transfer of audio and time code from the video edit master to an audio tape. [Read the fulll article…]
Layover     Transfer of audio onto multitrack tape or hard disk. [Read the fulll article…]
Layup     Transfer of audio onto multitrack tape or hard disk. [Read the fulll article…]
Lead room     The distance between the subject and the edge of the frame in the direction the subject is looking. [Read the fulll article…]
Leader     A length of nonimage film which is used for threading, identification, or fill-in purposes. [Read the fulll article…]
Lean     A lean-in followed by a lean-out. [Read the fulll article…]
Lean-In     When the juxtaposition of shots in a sequence, usually in a scene of dialogue, starts with medium or long shots, for example, and ends with close-ups. [Read the fulll article…]
Lean-Out     The opposite of a lean-in, moving from close-ups out to longer shots. [Read the fulll article…]
Leko     An ellipsoidal reflector spot light. Usually used for theatrical purposes. [Read the fulll article…]
Lens     The transparent material (usually glass) through which the light beam enters the camera and is refracted onto the body and sensor of the camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Lens speed     The aperture of a camera lens. The lower the f/ (aperture ratio) value, the faster the lens. [Read the fulll article…]
Letterboxing     The result of converting a film from widescreen aspect ratio to standard. Letterboxing creates black areas above and below the original clip to make up for missing content. [Read the fulll article…]
Library pictures     Video footage that can be used again in other films. [Read the fulll article…]
Library Shot     Video footage that can be used again in other films. [Read the fulll article…]
Light     The spectrum visible to the human eye. [Read the fulll article…]
Lip sync     The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech. [Read the fulll article…]
Liquid Crystal Display (lcd)     Screens similar to Plasma screens, and comprised of a thin layer of special liquid crystals sandwiched between sheets of polarized glass or plastic. [Read the fulll article…]
Liquid-crystal display (lcd)     A flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. [Read the fulll article…]
Lithium ion batteries (lib)     The preferred type of battery for use in high-end video equipment. [Read the fulll article…]
Long Portrait     Takes portraiture photography and transfers it to video form, revealing a subject’s subtle expressions, mannerisms, and gestures. [Read the fulll article…]
Long shot (ls)     Camera view of a subject or scene from a distance, showing a broad perspective. [Read the fulll article…]
Look room     The distance between the subject and the edge of the frame in the direction the subject is looking. [Read the fulll article…]
Lookup table (lut)     A table of numbers that apply a color transform to an image. [Read the fulll article…]
Looping     The process of re-recording dialog in the studio in synchronization with the picture. [Read the fulll article…]
Low-key lighting     A high contrast lighting style with a lot of shadows and large areas of darkness. [Read the fulll article…]
Lowkey     A high contrast lighting style with a lot of shadows and large areas of darkness. [Read the fulll article…]
Lowpass Filter (lpf)     A filter that attenuates frequencies above a specified frequency and allows those below that point to pass. [Read the fulll article…]
Luma     The achromatic (black and white) portion of the image. [Read the fulll article…]
Lumen (lm)     A measurement of light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point source of one candle intensity. [Read the fulll article…]
Luminance     A measurement of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. [Read the fulll article…]
Lux (lx)     1 lux = 1 lumen per square meter. [Read the fulll article…]
M/S     A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording. [Read the fulll article…]
Macro lens     A camera lens that uses a long barrel for close focusing. [Read the fulll article…]
Magenta     A red-purple color which is the complementary color of green. [Read the fulll article…]
Magnetic film     Film which is coated with an iron oxide compound on which sound is recorded and from which sound is reproduced. [Read the fulll article…]
Magnetic tape     A medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. [Read the fulll article…]
Magnetic tape     Film which is coated with an iron oxide compound on which sound is recorded and from which sound is reproduced. [Read the fulll article…]
Masking     A phenomenon whereby one or more sound "trick" the ear into not hearing other, weaker, sound that are also present. [Read the fulll article…]
Match cut     A cut made on action or movement between two shots in which the action has been overlapped either by repetition of the action or by the use of more than one camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Match Dissolve     A transition between two scenes where the first merges imperceptibly into the second. [Read the fulll article…]
Matching on action     The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Matte     A process shot in which foreground action is superimposed on a separately photographed background by an optical printer. [Read the fulll article…]
Matte box     A box attached to the front of the video camera lens in order to block and absorb light. [Read the fulll article…]
Medium Close Up (mcu)     Halfway between a mid shot and a close-up. Usually covers the subject's head and shoulders. [Read the fulll article…]
Medium shot (ms)     Defines any camera perspective between long shot and closeup, viewing the subjects from a medium distance. [Read the fulll article…]
Megabyte (mb)     A measure of computer storage capability; the equivalent of 1,000 bytes. [Read the fulll article…]
Memory Bank     A video that documents moments or events in a person's life. [Read the fulll article…]
Memory Card     A device used to store photos and videos in your camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Mid-Side     A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording. [Read the fulll article…]
MIDI     A protocol that allows synthesizers and computers to communicate with and/or control each other in real time to produce sound. [Read the fulll article…]
Mirror image     An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right. [Read the fulll article…]
Mix     The result of combining combining audio signals from different sources, such as microphones, instruments, recordings, etc. [Read the fulll article…]
Mix Cue Sheet     A sheet having several columns for notations of footage, fades. volume levels, and equalizations which are used in mixing sound tracks where each column usually represents one track. [Read the fulll article…]
Modulation     A process that converts mutimedia information to an electrical or optical signal before it is transmitted. The reverse process (demodulation) converts the signal back to the original blend of audio, video, image and text. [Read the fulll article…]
Monitor     A screen device capable of accepting direct input from a video source. [Read the fulll article…]
Monochrome     A device, process or media that uses only variants of a single color tone (hue). Black and white pictures are monochrome images. [Read the fulll article…]
Monopod     A single staff or pole used to help support cameras, binoculars, rifles or other precision instruments in the field. [Read the fulll article…]
Montage     The assembly of shots and the portrayal of action or ideas through the use of many short shots. [Read the fulll article…]
Motion Omit Sound (mos)     Silent filming. [Read the fulll article…]
Moving Picture Experts Group (mpeg)     The name of a working group that sets the standards for audio and video compression and transmission. [Read the fulll article…]
Multicore     A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals [Read the fulll article…]
Multitrack (mtr)     An audio tape recorder capable of handling more than two tracks of information separately. [Read the fulll article…]
Music sequencer     The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives, stores and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (midi)     A protocol that allows synthesizers and computers to communicate with and/or control each other in real time to produce sound. [Read the fulll article…]
Negative     An image those tonal values which are the opposite (black & white) or complement (color) of those in the original subject. [Read the fulll article…]
Neutral Density (nd)     Colorless filters that reduce the amount of light in controlled degrees. [Read the fulll article…]
Neutral-density filter     A filter that reduces the amount of light entering the camera lens by modify the intensity of all wavelengths of light equally. [Read the fulll article…]
Nickel Metal Hydride (nimh)     A type of battery used in some lower-end cameras. Although cheaper than Lithium ion batteries, they tend to lose charge when not in use and don’t provide as much overall power. [Read the fulll article…]
Noir     Usually refers to the classic black and white film noir style used in detective mysteries, typically employing hard lighting and dark, low key lighting. [Read the fulll article…]
Noise     In analog video, a random flicker of dots or snow-like patterns resulting from electronic and radiated electromagnetic interferences accidentally picked up by the antenna. [Read the fulll article…]
Non-synchronous sound     Sound which is indigenous to the action but not precisely synchronized with the action [Read the fulll article…]
Noninterlaced scanning     A format of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Nose room     The distance between the subject and the edge of the frame in the direction the subject is looking. [Read the fulll article…]
Notch     A notch filter is a band-stop filter with a narrow stopband (high Q factor). [Read the fulll article…]
NTSC (ntsc)     The analog television color system that was used in North America from 1954 and until digital conversion, was used in most of the Americas. Set to 525 lines per frame, 29.97 frames per second. [Read the fulll article…]
Obie     A light mounted by the side of the camera, to provide direct light onto a subject's face, with the aim of reducing the appearance of blemishes and wrinkles. [Read the fulll article…]
Octave     The interval between two sounds having a basic frequency ratio of 2 to 1. [Read the fulll article…]
One Minute Video     A video exactly one minute in length, containing no camera movements (panning, tilting, etc.) or editing, and making use of original sound. [Read the fulll article…]
Opacity     The ratio of the amount of light falling on a surface to the amount of light which is transmitted. [Read the fulll article…]
Optical Effect     The combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. [Read the fulll article…]
Optical printer     A printer in which an image of the original is transferred to raw film stock by means of light and a lens system. [Read the fulll article…]
Optical Zoom     The lens’ ability to change the focal length either closer to or further from a central subject. [Read the fulll article…]
Over The Shoulder     Shots that are framed with an emphasis on a particular character’s perspective. This shot is used in dialogue scenes to show conversations between two people. [Read the fulll article…]
Overlapping Action     The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action of the succeeding shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Panning     Fixed, lateral movements made with a camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Patch panel     A unit used to connect and route signals to and from different, external devices. [Read the fulll article…]
Phantom power     A method of remotely powering the preamplifier or impedance converter which is buitlt into many microphones by sending a voltage along the audio cable. [Read the fulll article…]
Phase     The timing relationship between two signals [Read the fulll article…]
Phase Alternating Line (pal)     An analog standard used for encoding color television signals. PAL is the equivalent of NTSC and SECAM. [Read the fulll article…]
Phase Distortion     A shifting of output voltage relative to input by an amount which is disproportional to frequency. Phase Distortion is undetectable until it is amplified. [Read the fulll article…]
Phase shift     The displacement of a waveform in time. [Read the fulll article…]
Pick-up Shot     Reshooting a portion of a scene, the rest of which was acceptably filmed in a previous take. [Read the fulll article…]
Picture Profile     The four dimensions of in-camera picture settings: sharpness, contrast, saturation, and color tone. [Read the fulll article…]
Pilot tone     A sine wave signal, recorded by various field audio recorders at a known frequency, which is used to resolve the tape speed on playback to retain sync with film camera footage. Obsolete. [Read the fulll article…]
Pilottone     A sine wave signal, recorded by various field audio recorders at a known frequency, which is used to resolve the tape speed on playback to retain sync with film camera footage. Obsolete. [Read the fulll article…]
Pink noise     A sound signal that has an equal amount of energy per octave or fraction of an octave. [Read the fulll article…]
Pitch     The frequency of audible sound [Read the fulll article…]
Pixel     The smallest addressable element on a screen or display device. [Read the fulll article…]
Pixel Aspect Ratio (par)     A mathematical ratio that describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel. [Read the fulll article…]
Plasma Screen     Display screens comprised of hundreds of thousands of tiny gas-filled cells sandwiched between two sheets of glass. [Read the fulll article…]
Point of view (pov)     A shot that shows the perspective from a character or object’s position in the scene's setting. [Read the fulll article…]
Polarizing Filter     A piece of glass that fits over the front end of a lens to change the way that your camera sees and treats light, while ultimately cutting down on glare. [Read the fulll article…]
Post-Production     The period in a project's development that takes place after the picture is delivered, or "after the production." [Read the fulll article…]
Power dividers     A splitter that divides a power line into two parts. [Read the fulll article…]
Power splitters     A splitter that divides a power line into two parts. [Read the fulll article…]
Practical source     Any light source that is part of the scene itself and does not need to be hidden from the camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Preamp     An electronic device that boosts extremely weak signal voltages, such as those from microphones or mag heads, to a level that is usable by power amplifiers. [Read the fulll article…]
Preamplifier     An electronic device that boosts extremely weak signal voltages, such as those from microphones or mag heads, to a level that is usable by power amplifiers. [Read the fulll article…]
Prescoring     Recording of music or other sound prior to the shooting of the picture which is to accompany it. The most common usage is in animated film. [Read the fulll article…]
Presence     The sound in a room. It is recorded and intercut with dialogue to smooth out any editing points. [Read the fulll article…]
Prime lens     A lens with a fixed focal length. [Read the fulll article…]
Principal Photography     The main photography of a film and the time period during which it takes place. [Read the fulll article…]
Prism Shutter     A device used on many film viewers, editing machines, and some high-speed cameras, consisting of a rotating prism of four or more sides through which the viewer light passes as film is pulled continuously through it. [Read the fulll article…]
Process Shot     A shot that will be composited from two other shots. The background part of this process is called a 'plate'. [Read the fulll article…]
Production Sound     Recording and/or mixing sound on location during the film or video shoot. [Read the fulll article…]
Progressive capture     A format of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Progressive scan     A way to store and transmit images that draws all the lines in each frame in sequence. Compare to other techniques such as interlacing. [Read the fulll article…]
Progressive scanning     A format of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Quarter Inch     Film which is coated with an iron oxide compound on which sound is recorded and from which sound is reproduced. [Read the fulll article…]
Quartz     Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. [Read the fulll article…]
quartz iodine lamp     Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. [Read the fulll article…]
Quartz-halogen     Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. [Read the fulll article…]
Racking focus     Shifting focus between subjects in the background and foreground so a viewer’s attention moves from subject to subject as the focus shifts. [Read the fulll article…]
Raw image format     A proprietary file format containing the entire unprocessed information captured by the sensors.. [Read the fulll article…]
Re-recording     The process of mixing all edited music, effects and dialog tracks of a film or video production to mono, stereo, multichannel or whatever audio format is desired for the final print master. [Read the fulll article…]
Reaction shot     A shot of a player listening while another player's voice continues on the sound track. [Read the fulll article…]
Reduction Printing     A copy of a film done with an optical printer to a smaller size or gauge than the original. [Read the fulll article…]
Refresh rate     The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. [Read the fulll article…]
Regular reflection     A term used to describe highly directional, focused light. This is often perceived as a very 'hard' light. [Read the fulll article…]
Relational Editing     Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. [Read the fulll article…]
Release     The authorization by the owner of a completed film to a public exhibition of the film. [Read the fulll article…]
Release negative     A duplicate negative from which release prints are made. [Read the fulll article…]
Resolution     The total number of bits that a digitized image contains, or that a digital display can show. Typically expressed as the number of pixels referencing the width and height of the image or display: 800px x 600px. [Read the fulll article…]
Reverb     The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections. [Read the fulll article…]
Reverberation (rv)     The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections. [Read the fulll article…]
Reversal film     A film that is manufactured and processed in such a way as to produce a positive image after exposure. [Read the fulll article…]
Reverse action     An optical effect in which the action appears backward from its chronological sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Reverse Angle     A shot that is turned approximately 180 degrees in relation to the preceding shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Reverse cut     A shot that is turned approximately 180 degrees in relation to the preceding shot. [Read the fulll article…]
Ring Flash     A circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens. [Read the fulll article…]
Ring Light     A circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens. [Read the fulll article…]
Room modes     The collection of resonances that exist in a room when the room is excited by an acoustic source such as a loudspeaker [Read the fulll article…]
Room tone     The sound in a room. It is recorded and intercut with dialogue to smooth out any editing points. [Read the fulll article…]
Root-mean-square (rms)     Effective sound pressure. [Read the fulll article…]
Rough cut     A preliminary trial stage in the process of editing a film. Shots are laid out in approximate relationship to an end product without detailed attention to the individual cutting points [Read the fulll article…]
Rule of Third     A method of composing shots. [Read the fulll article…]
Rushes     This refers to daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes. [Read the fulll article…]
S-Video     A signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. [Read the fulll article…]
Safe area     Boundaries within which contents of a television picture are sure to be seen, regardless of masking differences in receiver displays. [Read the fulll article…]
Scenarist     A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. [Read the fulll article…]
Scene     A sequence of related shots usually constituting action in one particular location. [Read the fulll article…]
Score     The original-music composition for a motion picture or television production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited. [Read the fulll article…]
Screener     An advance screening of a film or television [Read the fulll article…]
Screenplay     A formatted written work that includes stage direction, action, character names and dialogue. [Read the fulll article…]
Screenplay writer     A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. [Read the fulll article…]
Screenwriter     A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. [Read the fulll article…]
Scrim     A metal 'window screen' that can be placed in front of a lighting unit to decrease the lighting intensity by a predetermined amount. [Read the fulll article…]
Scriptwriter     A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based. [Read the fulll article…]
Scrub     Moving a piece of tape or magnetic film back and forth over a sound head to locate a specific cue or word. [Read the fulll article…]
Scrub Wheel     A mechanical control for scrubbing film or magnetic tape. [Read the fulll article…]
Second Unit     A photographic team that shoots scenes which do not involve the principal cast, such as stunts, car chases, or establishing shots. [Read the fulll article…]
Sensitivity     An indication of recording or playback efficiency as might be a measure of a microphone or audio tape recorder. [Read the fulll article…]
Separate Video     A signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. [Read the fulll article…]
Sequencer     The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives, stores and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Set-top box (stb)     A device that is connected to a television so that it can receive digital signals. [Read the fulll article…]
Shot List     A full log of all the shots you want to include in your video. [Read the fulll article…]
Shotgun Mic     A highly directional microphone, usually with a long, tubular body; used by the production sound mixer on location or on the set for film and television productions. [Read the fulll article…]
Shoulder Rig     A piece of equipment used to help stabilize a handheld camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Shutter     In a camera, the mechanical component that allows light to reach the sensors for a set amount of time. [Read the fulll article…]
Shutter speed     One of several methods used to control the amount of light recorded by the camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Siamese     A splitter that divides a power line into two parts. [Read the fulll article…]
Sibilance     An exaggerated hissing in voice patterns. [Read the fulll article…]
Sider     A flag up on the side of a lighting unit to block light. [Read the fulll article…]
Sight line     An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she is looking at. [Read the fulll article…]
Sightline     An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she is looking at. [Read the fulll article…]
Signal     The form of variation with time of a wave whereby information is conveyed in some form whether it is acoustic or electronic. [Read the fulll article…]
Signal generator     A device or component that outputs predetermined audio or video signals for testing and measurement purposes. [Read the fulll article…]
Signal-to-noise ratio (snr)     A measurement of the ratio between the amplitude of the original signal and the background noise. A higher SNR indicates a better output. [Read the fulll article…]
Single     A shot with only one subject in the frame. [Read the fulll article…]
Single System     A method of recording sound and picture on the same medium, most typically used in newsgathering. [Read the fulll article…]
Skip Frame     An optical printing effect which eliminates selected frames of the original scene to speed up the action. [Read the fulll article…]
Slate     A device to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. [Read the fulll article…]
Slave     An audiotape or videotape transport, projector or mag film dubber whose movements follow the movement of a single master transport. [Read the fulll article…]
Slow Motion     A device that uses a track to allow smooth camera movements laterally, front to back, or even diagonally. [Read the fulll article…]
SMPTE Color Bars (smpte)     A test pattern used on analog televisions conforming to the NTSC video standard. [Read the fulll article…]
Snake     A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals [Read the fulll article…]
Snake cable     A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals and/or line-level signals [Read the fulll article…]
SnorriCam     A camera rig attached to the body of an actor to create the effect of a background moving around a stationary subject. [Read the fulll article…]
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (sdds)     Sony Dynamic Digital Sound System. A film sound format which encodes eight tracks of digital audio outside of the sprocket holes on both edges of a film print. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound Designer     A film sound specialist responsible for the development and augmentation of all soundtrack material, or a significant portion thereof, and is ultimately in charge of the entire sound production. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound Effect     A recorded or electronically produced sound that matches the visual action taking place onscreen. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound marker     A device to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound masking     A phenomenon whereby one or more sound "trick" the ear into not hearing other, weaker, sound that are also present. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound Mixer     The person responsible for capturing sound as it plays out live, determining microphone types and placement. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound recordist     The person responsible for capturing sound as it plays out live, determining microphone types and placement. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound reflection     The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections. [Read the fulll article…]
Sound track     Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog. [Read the fulll article…]
Soundtrack     Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog. [Read the fulll article…]
Specular     A term used to describe highly directional, focused light. This is often perceived as a very 'hard' light. [Read the fulll article…]
Speed of sound     The velocity of sound in air is 770 mi/hr. This speed, however, is influenced by temperature and air pressure. [Read the fulll article…]
Spike     A short burst of voltage, current or energy on a transmission line or circuit. [Read the fulll article…]
Spill     Light that is escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light that is falling where it is not wanted. [Read the fulll article…]
Spill fill     Light that is escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light that is falling where it is not wanted. [Read the fulll article…]
Splice     The technique of compositing used to combine visual elements such as actors onto a virtual background. In traditional film-making, refers to the act of joining two pieces of film by any of several methods. [Read the fulll article…]
Split screen     The visible division of the screen, traditionally in half, between videos. [Read the fulll article…]
Split screen     Optical or special effects shot in which two separate images are combined on each frame. [Read the fulll article…]
Spool     A flanged roll on which film is wound for general handling or projection. [Read the fulll article…]
Spot     On a lensed light, the smallest beam spread. [Read the fulll article…]
Spotting     Used in scoring and sound effects editing to identify the specific scenes or points where music cues or effects cues will take place. Usually, this will include information on length and style. [Read the fulll article…]
Standard HD     A progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). [Read the fulll article…]
Standing waves     A deep sound in a small room or recording booth. It refers to low audio frequencies caused by long waves with short reflection patterns. [Read the fulll article…]
Steadicam     A flying camera stabilizer (often comprised of an arm, vest, and sled) that enables cinematographers to get smooth moving shots. [Read the fulll article…]
Stinger     The nickname for an extension cord made to the film industry standard. Most often referred to a single 'hot' extension that is left lying around for occasional use. [Read the fulll article…]
Stock     In traditional film-making, a general term for the motion picture film itself, before it is exposed. [Read the fulll article…]
Stock footage     Video footage that can be used again in other films. [Read the fulll article…]
Stop motion     An animated-film making technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion when the series of frames is played back as a fast sequence. [Read the fulll article…]
Storyboard     A drawing that shows each scene of your video. A storyboard provides a concise plan for what you need to shoot or animate. [Read the fulll article…]
Streaming media     Digital video content that can be transmitted and viewed simultaneously. Typically used for broadcasting "live" events in real-time. [Read the fulll article…]
Striplight     Row lights for evenly illuminating a cyclorama or other background. [Read the fulll article…]
Surround sound     Sound that is reproduced through speakers above or behind the audience. [Read the fulll article…]
Sweetening     Enhancing the sound of a recording or a particular sound effect with equalization or some other signal processing device. [Read the fulll article…]
Swishblog     A unique way of vid-blogging (invented by Vimean Justin Johnson) that makes use of quick pans or tilts at the beginning and end of every shot to transition between clips and give your video a fun, dream-like feel. [Read the fulll article…]
Sync     The sound lining up properly with the image. [Read the fulll article…]
Sync light     A camera attachment which records the film shot and take numbers and a visible sync mark which corresponds to a tone fed to an audio recorder. [Read the fulll article…]
T-Stop     The f-stop value divided by the square root of the lens transmittance. [Read the fulll article…]
Take Down     Reducing the light on an object by means of nets, scrims, dimmers or wasting light. [Read the fulll article…]
Tape hiss     Noise that is caused by minute imperfections in the surface of a recording medium. [Read the fulll article…]
Tearing     An horizontal line which appears during playback, caused by the graphics processor being out of sync with the display. [Read the fulll article…]
Telephoto     A lens that uses a telephoto group to enable a longer focal length than the physical body of the lens would normally permit. [Read the fulll article…]
Temp Dub     A preliminary mixing of dialogue, music, and sound effects, usually so that a first cut may be viewed with all of these elements incorporated. [Read the fulll article…]
Three-point lighting     A common type of lighting setup that lights a subject from three different sources in order to control shadows and balance contrast. [Read the fulll article…]
THX     A theatrical film exhibition sound system which maintains a consistent sound standard from theatre to theatre. [Read the fulll article…]
Tilt     Fixed up and down, or vertical, movements made with the camera. [Read the fulll article…]
Time Code     A high-frequency signal that allows the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment. [Read the fulll article…]
Timecode     A high-frequency signal that allows the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment. [Read the fulll article…]
Timelapse     A technique where each frame in a video is captured at a much slower rate than normal. [Read the fulll article…]
Tracking shot     A camera shot that physically advances or changes the position of the camera relative to the subject, changing the spatial relations between a subject and its surroundings. [Read the fulll article…]
Trailer     A short publicity film which advertises a film or forthcoming presentations. [Read the fulll article…]
Transcoding     The process of converting a file or stream from one format to another. [Read the fulll article…]
Transient     A short burst or spike of energy caused by a sudden change of state. [Read the fulll article…]
Trims     Portions of a scene left over after the selected section has been used in final cutting. [Read the fulll article…]
Tungsten halogen     Tungsten-Halogen lights or lighting units. The name is derived from the material which encloses the lighting element. [Read the fulll article…]
Tungsten light     A light bulb that emits light using a filament of tungsten wire, and are larger versions of the everyday lighting found in your home. [Read the fulll article…]
TV Safe     The area of a filmed image which will normally appear on a home television set after a film has been transferred in telecine and then transmitted. [Read the fulll article…]
Two shot     A camera view including two subjects, most generally applicable to interview situations. [Read the fulll article…]
UHD     Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. [Read the fulll article…]
UHDTV     Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. [Read the fulll article…]
Ultra HD television     Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. [Read the fulll article…]
Ultra-high-definition television     Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. [Read the fulll article…]
Upconversion     A system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution, a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling." [Read the fulll article…]
Upscaling     A system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution, a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling." [Read the fulll article…]
Variable bitrate (vbr)     Variable bitrate is a process of encoding files which varies the amount of output data based on the complexity of a given time segment. [Read the fulll article…]
Vertical refresh rate     The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. [Read the fulll article…]
Vertical scan rate     The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. [Read the fulll article…]
Video     An electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media. [Read the fulll article…]
Video Amplifier     Video amplifiers are devices that amplify the power of the video signals, using bandwidths that differ depending on the target. [Read the fulll article…]
Video Blog (vlog)     Blogging through video. [Read the fulll article…]
Video Electronics Standards Association (vesa)     A technical standards organization responsible for the computer industry's display standards. [Read the fulll article…]
Video Graphics Array (vga)     A graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987. [Read the fulll article…]
Video quality     A measure of the perceived degradation of the video signal. [Read the fulll article…]
Viewfinder     The part of the camera you look through to see the image from your lens’ field of view. [Read the fulll article…]
Vignette     Visual special effect whereby viewers see images through a perceived keyhole, heart shape, diamond, etc. [Read the fulll article…]
Visual axis (sight line)      [Read the fulll article…]
Whip pan     Extremely rapid camera movement from left to right or right to left, appearing as an image blur. [Read the fulll article…]
White balance     The process of capturing the correct colors for the type of available light [Read the fulll article…]
White noise     A random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. [Read the fulll article…]
Wide angle lens     A lens that uses a grouping of glass to enable a shorter focal length than the physical body of the lens would normally permit. [Read the fulll article…]
Y/C     A signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. [Read the fulll article…]
Zoom lens     A mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens. [Read the fulll article…]
Zoom shot     A camera shot that magnifies the view of the subject while the camera itself remains stationary. [Read the fulll article…]
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