3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) A collaboration between telecommunications associations to make a globally applicable third-generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project.
4:1:1 In 4:1:1 chroma subsampling, the horizontal color resolution is quartered, and the bandwidth is halved compared to no chroma subsampling.
4:2:0 In 4:2:0, the horizontal sampling is doubled compared to 4:1:1.
4:2:2 A commonly used term for a component digital video format.
4:4:4 Digital images or video in which all color components have the same sampling rate, thus not using chroma subsampling.
4fsc The sampling rate of a D2 digital video signal with respect to the sub-carrier frequency of an NTSC or PAL analog video signal.
4K UHD Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
5.1 The common name for six-channel surround sound audio systems.
8 Mm (8MM) A compact videocassette record/playback* tape format which uses eight-millimeter wide magnetic tape. A worldwide standard established in 1983 allowing high-quality video and audio recording.
8K UHD Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
8VSB The modulation method used for broadcast in the ATSC digital television standard.
24p A video format that operates at 24 frames per second.
24Psf 24 frame per second, progressive segmented frame.
30-degree Rule A basic film editing guideline that states the camera should move at least 30 degrees relative to the subject between successive shots of the same subject.
35mm A film gauge used in filmmaking, and the film standard. In motion pictures that record on film, 35 mm is the most commonly used gauge.
48sF The process of taking 24-frame progressive images and deconstructing them to produce 48 interlaced frames each with half of the number of lines of resolution to allow some HDTV processors to pass the signal and for viewing on an interlaced monitor without flicker.
180-degree Rule An imaginary line drawn across two subjects, setting a boundary for the camera angles. The action axis is used to anchor the continuity of action on screen.
480i A vertical resolution of 480 lines, and the i identifies it as an interlaced resolution.
480p A vertical resolution of 480 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 640 pixels and 4:3 aspect ratio or a horizontal resolution of 854 or less.
576i A standard-definition video mode originally used for terrestrial television in most countries of the world where the utility frequency for electric power distribution is 50 Hz.
576p A vertical resolution of 576 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 720 or 704 pixels.
720p A progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1).
1080i A combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video.
1080p A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically.
1440p (QHD) A display resolution of 2560 × 1440 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio.
A-roll Main footage used in production. Contrast with B-roll.
A/A Roll Editing Editing from a single source using effects to transition from the source to itself (source "A" to "A") using a picture freeze at the end of one scene to transition the start of the next scene.
A/B Roll Editing Editing from two source VCRs ("A" and "B") to a third (recording) VCR. Typically a switcher or mixer, such as the Digital Video Mixer, is used to provide transition effects between sources.
A/X/A Roll Editing Editing from a single source using effects to transition from the source to itself (source "A" to "A") using a picture freeze at the end of one scene to transition the start of the next scene.
Adobe Flash Player Computer software for using content created on the Adobe Flash platform, including viewing multimedia contents, executing rich Internet applications, and streaming audio and video.
Adobe RGB Color Space A color space developed by Adobe Systems, Inc. in 1998 designed to encompass most of the colors achievable on CMYK color printers, but by using RGB primary colors on a device such as a computer display.
After Effects (AE) After Effects is to video editing what Photoshop is to image manipulation: an all-encompassing application with a professional toolset designed for anything from titling to character animation, compositing and more.
AMV Video Format (AMV) A proprietary video file format, produced for MP4 players, as well as S1 MP3 players with video playback.
Analepsis An interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point in the story.
Analog Opposite of digital. The term refers to the recording (storage and measurement) of an infinitely variable signal gathered from a physical source. In electronics, analog signals are generally acquired through the Composite, S-Video, or Component Video connectors.
Analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) An electronic component that converts an analog signal to a digital signal. ADC accuracy are rated based on their bandwidth (sampling rate) and signal-to-noise ratio.
Analog Monitor A video monitor which accepts analog* signals. The signals transmitted to an analog monitor are usually between 0 and 1 V and use 75 ohm coaxial cables.
Analog Recording A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal is a physical representation of the waveform of the original signal.
Analog Switch-off The process in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television.
Anamorphic The cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio.
Anamorphic Widescreen (FHA) A process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium with a narrower aspect ratio.
Anastigmat A photographic lens completely corrected for spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.
Anastigmatic Lens A photographic lens completely corrected for spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.
Angle Of Incidence The angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence called the normal.
Angle Of Light The angle between the orientation of a light source and the viewing directio
Angle On A type of shot. This usually occurs in scenes taking place in large settings.
Angular Resolution The ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
Animatics A simplified mock-up to give a better idea of how a scene will look and feel with motion and timing.
Animation The process of creating a progressively altering image that gives the appearance of continuous motion.
Animatronics Mechatronic puppets. They are a modern variant of the automaton and are often used for the portrayal of characters in films and in theme park attractions.
Arc Lamp A lamp that produces light by an electric arc.
Arc Light A lamp that produces light by an electric arc.
Arc Shot Filming the subject through a moving, encircling camera.
Argon A chemical element used inside the bulbs of incandescent lamps to prevent oxidation of their filaments.
Array Camera A camera that captures information about the light field emanating from a scene.
Art Director The person in charge of supervising and unifying the vision of the film, video or project.
Artifact Any undesired or unintended alteration in data introduced during the processing of the digital video signal. Most digital artifacts are the result of problems with compression, aliasing and/or error diffusion.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) Intelligence demonstrated by machines, devices, and software; the term is often used to describe automatic corrective processes during the acquisition or creation of digital videos.
ASA The exposure index or speed rating of a film which denotes the film's sensitivity.
ASCII (acr.) American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Automatic Exposure (AE) Camera mode that automatically calculates and adjusts exposure settings to match (as closely as possible) the subject's mid-tone to the mid-tone of the photograph.
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) A circuit that automatically adjusts the gain of an amplifier based on the relative strength of the input signal. Used to maintain an even output when the audio signal is too low or the scene is poorly lighted.
Automatic Iris A mechanism coupled to the shutter release that controls the lens diaphragm.
AVC-Intra A type of video coding developed by Panasonic, and then supported in products made by other companies.
AVC-Ultra Defines an additional three new encoding parameters within the MPEG-4 Part 10 standard, utilizing up to the 4:4:4 Intra Predictive Profile, as well as an additional low bitrate proxy recording mode.
AVCHD (acr.) Advanced Video Coding High Definition.
Backing Track Prerecorded accompaniment for a singer or voiceover actor who then listens through headphones to a replay as he/she performs.
Backlight A light which is generally mounted behind a subject to light the subject's hair and shoulders without illuminating a subject's front.
Back Projection A technique where the actor stands in front of a screen and the background is projected onto the screen behind them.
Baffle In audio, any object designed to reduce airborne sound. In lighting, An opaque or translucent component that blocks the direct sight of a lighting source.
Ballast A component required by fluorescent and HID lighting fixtures.
Ballast Factor The ANSI ballast factor is used in North America to compare the light output (in lumens) of a lamp operated on a ballast compared to the lamp operating on an ANSI reference ballast.
Balloon Light Specialized types of luminaire used primarily for lighting in the motion picture industry, night highway construction, incident management, and public security applications such as police checkpoints.
Banana Connector A single-wire (one conductor) electrical connector used for joining wires to equipment.
Band-pass Filter (BPF) A device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range.
Band-stop Filter A notch filter is a band-stop filter with a narrow stopband (high Q factor).
Bandwidth The maximum amount of bits/second that can travel along a network or channel. Most videos players will allow for automatic scaling a video stream to match the available bandwidth.
Barndoors Folding doors which are mounted on to the front of a light unit in order to control illumination.
Barney A sound-minimizing blanket placed over a camera to reduce the noise emitting from its moving mechanisms.
Barrier A first act obstacle in the way of a protagonist’s objective.
Baseband A signaling technique in which the signal is transmitted in its original form and not
changed by modulation.
Baud A unit of signaling speed equal to the number of signal events per second. Baud is
equivalent to bits per second in cases where each signal event represents exactly one bit.
Beatscript Scripting aid used for describing story ideas.
Bed Background music used underneath a narrator or foreground dialog. Primarily applied to commercial radio or television spots.
Beep Short duration sound track tone aligned to a point on the film for precise reference in synchronization in the editing and printing processes.
Bel A measure of voltage, current, or power gain. One bel is defined as a tenfold increase in power.
Belling-Lee Connector A connector commonly used in Europe and Australia to connect coaxial cables with each other and with terrestrial VHF/UHF roof antennas, antenna signal amplifiers, CATV distribution equipment, TV sets, and FM and DAB radio receivers.
Bi-level Sync A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video.
Bi-Pin Base A lamp base that uses two pins, as implied by its name.
Bidirectional Microphone pickup pattern whereby sound is absorbed equally from two sides only.
Bidirectional Predicted Picture B-frames can contain intra, predicted, or bi-predicted macroblocks. B‑frames can use both previous and forward frames for data reference to get the highest amount of data compression.
Bit Depth The number of bits used that a given device or system can use to represent the color of a pixel. Common color depths include 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit.
Bit Error Rate (BER) In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) A testing method for digital communication circuits that uses predetermined stress patterns consisting of a sequence of logical ones and zeros generated by a test pattern generator.
Bitmap The 2-D array of pixels representing video and graphics.
Bitmap Image File (BMP) A raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems.
Bit Parallel Transmission of digital video a byte at a time down a multi-conductor cable where each pair of wires carries a single bit.
Bit Rate The rate of binary digits flowing in a digital data-processing system. Bit rates are expressed as the number of bits per second (bps or Kbps) traveling through a digital stream.
Bitrate Peeling A technique used in Ogg Vorbis audio encoded streams, wherein a stream can be encoded at one bitrate but can be served at that or any lower bitrate.
Bit Slippage The loss or gain of a bit or bits, caused by clock drift – variations in the respective clock rates of the transmitting and receiving devices.
Black Burst A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video.
Black Level Video black level is defined as the level of brightness at the darkest (black) part of a visual image or the level of brightness at which no light is emitted from a screen, resulting in a pure black screen.
Black Wrap Black aluminum foil for wrapping lights and controlling spill.
Blanking Level The voltage level produced at the end of each horizontal picture line which separates the portion of the video signal containing the picture information from the portion containing the synchronizing information.
Bleeding Video image imperfection characterized by a blurring of color borders; colors spill over defined boundaries, "run" into neighboring areas.
Blimp Housing for the camera or microphone intended to prevent sound equipment from picking up any extra sounds emitting from the camera.
Block The rectangular area of the picture, usually 8 x 8 pixels in size, which are individually subjected to DCT coding as part of a digital picture compression process.
Blocking Plotting the placement and movement of the actors, camera and microphone in a scene.
Blu-ray Disc (BD) A digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, and is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition (HDTV 720p and 1080p) and ultra high-definition resolution (2160p).
BMP File Format (BMP) A raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems.
Cable Box (STB) A device that is connected to a television so that it can receive digital signals.
CableCARD A special-use PC Card device that allows consumers in the United States to view and record digital cable television channels on digital video recorders, personal computers and television sets on equipment such as a set-top box not provided by a cable television company.
Cable Television (CATV) A system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
Callier Effect The variation in contrast of images produced by a photographic film with different manners of illumination.
Call Sheet A form which refers to all of the scenes to be filmed and all of the personnel and equipment required for shooting on a particular day.
Camcorder Combination of camera and video tape recorder in one device. Camcorders permit easy and rapid photography and recording simultaneously.
Cameo Appearance A brief appearance or voice part of a well-known person in a work of the performing arts.
Cameo Lighting A spotlight that accentuates a single person and maybe a few props in a scene.
Camera Angle The view point chosen from which to photograph a subject.
Camera Blocking The process of notating the changing position of the camera, lens size, and focus during a particular scene.
Camera Coverage The process of shooting additional footage and camera angles to cover the action in the scene so that the editor has a greater range of choices when the film reaches the post production stage.
Camera Dolly Camera support mounted on wheels enabling smooth movement in any direction.
Camera Jib A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other.
Camera Link The name of a serial communication protocol for cameras.
Camera Operator A professional operator of a film or video camera as part of a film crew.
Camlock An interchangeable single-pole electrical connector often used in temporary electrical power production and distribution predominantly used in North America.
Candela (CD) The unit of measurement of the luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction.
Changeover Cue A visual indicator located on the upper right-hand corner of a film frame, telling the projectionist to change the reel.
Channel In the context of digital image processing, a channel is a grayscale image or frame representing one of the primary colors that make up the color version of the same.
Channel Coding (FEC) An error correction technique that uses redundant data to avoid relying on the sender retransmitting faulty data.
Character In scriptwriting, a person (or equivalent) that drives a part of the narrative
Character Arc The shaping of the story arc that follows the transformation or inner journey of a character.
Character Development The shaping of the story arc that follows the transformation or inner journey of a character.
Character Generator (CG) The device (or software) that produces static or animated streams of letters, numbers, symbol that gets keyed into a video stream. The typical use of a character generator is to produce titles.
Characterization The representation of persons (or other beings) in narratives such as dramatic works of art, screenplays, etc.
Charge-coupled Device (CCD) An integrated circuit that converts light into electrical charges, which the camera's circuits then convert into images.
Cheater Cut Introductory footage showed at the beginning of an episode part of a series as an overview or recap of what happened in the previous episode.
Cheat Shot The insertion of a shot, usually taken from a different camera, as a bridge to disguise a mistake or a cut.
Checksum A checksum is a small-sized value used to detect errors that may have been introduced during data transmission or storage.
Chromaticity Measurement of color quality expressed by the combination of hue and saturation.
Chrominance (C) A measurement of the quality of light of a given color by comparing its hue and saturation to a reference color source.
Chrominance Noise Image noise that displays as colored pixels; also known as colored snow.
Chrominance Subcarrier The 3.58 MHz/NTSC (4.43 MHz/PAL) signal added to a black and white television signal to add color information. The subcarrier frequency is too high to be detected by black and white televisions ensuring compatibility.
Chronophotography An antique photographic technique that uses a series of photographs of a moving object for the purpose of displaying successive phases of the motion.
Chyron A partial overlay of a video stream that combines text and graphic elements to provide the viewer with contextual information.
CIE 1931 (CIE) The international authority on light, illumination, color, and color spaces.
CIELAB (LAB) A color space where equal distances are used to represent threshold or suprathreshold perceived color differences of equal size. same amount of numerical change in these values corresponds to roughly the same amount of visually perceived change.
CIEXYZ (CIE) The international authority on light, illumination, color, and color spaces.
Click And Drag The part of the user interface that allows for virtual objects to be moved to a different location using the mouse pointer.
Click Track A track containing a series of repetitive visual or audio cues, used to synchronize sound and images in a video.
Cliff Effect The abrupt interruption of a digital device that occurs when the receiver can no longer process the incoming signal due to quality or strength issues.
Climax In a script or story timeline, the point of highest tension, drama, or emotional upheaval.
Clip A short segment of electronic audio or video media often sampled from a larger recording.
Clip Bin A list of the locations of individual audio and video clips (or scenes) to be used as a reference during editing.
Clipped Highlights The loss of details due to the luminance signal being cut off by the video system to prevent exceeding its limits.
Clipped Whites The loss of details due to the luminance signal being cut off by the video system to prevent exceeding its limits.
Clipping The distortion of an audio or video signal, resulting in the high amplitude peaks being cut off. Clipping is often caused by the overloading of amplifier circuits.
Clip Sheet A list of the locations of individual audio and video clips (or scenes) to be used as a reference during editing.
Clock Frequency The frequency at which the clock generator of a processor can generate pulses, which are used to synchronize the operations of its components, and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.
Clock Jitter The deviation from the true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal, often in relation to a reference clock signal.
Clock Phase Deviation A phenomenon in synchronous digital circuit systems (such as computer systems) in which the same sourced clock signal arrives at different components at different times.
Clock Recovery The process of extracting timing information from a serial data stream to allow the receiving circuit to decode the transmitted symbols.
Clock Skew A phenomenon in synchronous digital circuit systems (such as computer systems) in which the same sourced clock signal arrives at different components at different times.
Clock Wipe A wipe that sweeps a radius around the center point of the frame to reveal the subsequent shot, like the sweeping hands of an analog clock.
Clone A hardware or software system that is designed to function in the same way as another system.
Cold Open A narrative tactic used in television and films.
Collaborative Real-time Editor A type of collaborative software or web application which enables real-time collaborative editing, simultaneous editing, or live editing of the same digital document, computer file or cloud-stored data – such as an online spreadsheet, word processing document, database or presentation – at the same time by different users on different computers or mobile devices, with automatic and nearly instantaneous merging of their edits.
Color Correction A process in which the coloring in a television image is altered or corrected by electronic means.
Color Decoder A device which divides a video signal into its basic color components. In TV and video, color decoding is used to derive signals required by a video monitor from the composite or Y/C signals.
Color Depth The number of bits used that a given device or system can use to represent the color of a pixel. Common color depths include 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit.
Color Filter A transparent colored material that is used in theater, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to color light and for color correction.
Color Framing The color frame sequence of fields in a composite video signal through which the video frame timing and chrominance subcarrier signal timing—in particular, that of the color burst -- cycle through all possible phase relationships.
Colorfulness An attribute of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity.
Color Gel A transparent colored material that is used in theater, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to color light and for color correction.
Color Grading The process of improving the appearance of an image for presentation in different environments on different devices.
Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) IBM's first graphics card and first color display card for the IBM PC. The highest display resolution of any mode was 640×200, and the highest color depth supported was 4-bit (16 colors).
Colorization Special effect (also called paint) which colors a monochrome or color image with artificial colors.
Color Magazine A fixture attached to a follow spot that places different color filters in the path of the beam.
Color Phase The phase of the chroma signal as compared to the color burst, is one of the factors that determines a video signal's color balance.
Color Processing The process of improving the appearance of an image for presentation in different environments on different devices.
Color Quantization Quantization applied to color spaces; it is a process that reduces the number of distinct colors used in an image, usually with the intention that the new image should be as visually similar as possible to the original image.
Color Rendering Index (CRI) A quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source.
Color Subcarrier The 3.58 MHz/NTSC (4.43 MHz/PAL) signal added to a black and white television signal to add color information. The subcarrier frequency is too high to be detected by black and white televisions ensuring compatibility.
Color Temperature The temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
Color Timing The process of improving the appearance of an image for presentation in different environments on different devices.
Comet Tailing A smear of light resulting from the inability of camera's pickup to process bright objects -- especially in darker settings. Object or camera in motion creates the appearance of a flying fireball.
Component Video A video signal that has been split into two or more component channels. In popular use, it refers to a type of component analog video (CAV) information that is transmitted or stored as three separate signals.
Component Video Sync A signal consisting of horizontal sync pulses, vertical sync pulses and equalizing pulses only.
Composite Character In scriptwriting, a composite is a character based on more than one individual from the preceding story, usually the author.
Composite Monitor A video monitor which accepts analog* signals. The signals transmitted to an analog monitor are usually between 0 and 1 V and use 75 ohm coaxial cables.
Composite Sync A signal consisting of horizontal sync pulses, vertical sync pulses and equalizing pulses only.
Composite Video (SD) A composite (analog) video transmission carrier of standard definition video over a single channel.
Compositing The combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene.
Composition Visual make-up of a video picture, including such variables as balance, framing, field of view and texture all aesthetic considerations. Combined qualities form an image that’s pleasing to view.
Contouring Digital video picture defects caused quantizing at too coarse a level.
Contrast The difference in luminance intensity, or color, that allows objects in an image distinguishable.
Contrast Cut An editor can strategically cut to juxtapose two subjects.
Contrast Ratio A measure of the difference in luminance intensity, or color, that allows objects in an image distinguishable.
Contrazoom In-camera effect that appears to undermine normal visual perception.
Control-L (LANC) Sony's wired edit control protocol which allows two-way communication between a camcorder or VCR and an edit controller such as the Thumbs Up.
Control Track The magnetized portion along the length of a videotape on which sync* control information is placed. The control track contains a pulse for each video field and is used to synchronize the tape and the video signal.
Cookie A device for casting shadows or silhouettes to produce patterned illumination.
Cool White A light source with a correlated color temperature of around 4100K
Coverage The process of shooting additional footage and camera angles to cover the action in the scene so that the editor has a greater range of choices when the film reaches the post production stage.
Critical Focus The area of critical focus is the portion of the picture that is optically in focus.
Crop Factor The crop factor, format factor or focal length multiplier of an image sensor format is the ratio of the dimensions of a camera's imaging area compared to a reference format; most often, this term is applied to digital cameras, relative to 35 mm film format as a reference.
Cropping The removal of unwanted areas from a video or still image.
Cross-conversion The process of converting from one high definition video standard to another. The opposite of up- or down-conversion.
Cross-cutting In editing method whereby related shots are inserted into a series of other shots for the purpose of contrast or for some other effect.
Cross Cut An editing technique most often used in films to establish action occurring at the same time, and usually in the same place.
Cross Dissolve A video transition that fades the end of the preceding clip into the beginning of the next.
Crossfade The gradual mix of sound sources accomplished by the simultaneous manipulation of two or more mix console faders.
Cross Screen Filter Filter mounted at front of the camera lens gives videotaped light sources a starburst effect.
Crosstalk The visual or auditory result of the coupling of electronic circuits across separate channels.
Dailies This refers to daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes.
Daisy Chain A wiring scheme in which multiple devices are wired together in sequence or in a ring, similar to a garland of daisy flowers.
DALI (acr.) Digital Addressable Lighting Interface.
Dark Current The relatively small electric current that flows through photosensitive devices such as a photomultiplier tube, photodiode, or charge-coupled device even when no photons are entering the device; it consists of the charges generated in the detector when no outside radiation is entering the detector.
DCI 2K A resolution of 2048 × 1080 (2.2 megapixels) with an aspect ratio of 256:135 (1.8962:1).
DCI 4K Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
Dead Time A visual effect or visual impression of detaching the time and space of a camera (or viewer) from those of its visible subject.
Dead Zone A place in which a sound waves are canceled by reflections arriving out of phase with the wanted signal thus creating an area of silence or poor audibility.
Deblocking Filter A video filter applied to decoded compressed video to improve visual quality and prediction performance by smoothing the sharp edges which can form between macroblocks when block coding techniques are used.
Decay The time it takes for a sound or musical note to go from peak amplitude (attack) to the sustain level.
Definition The aggregate of fine details available on-screen.
Deflicking A filtering operation applied to brightness flicker in video to improve visual quality.
Defocus Transition The defocus transition is a type of transition accomplished by rolling the lens focus until the scene becomes blurred.
Degausser A device used to erase recordings on magnetic tapes and films or to demagnetize magnetic recording heads.
Degradation The loss of quality of an electronic signal, which may be categorized as either graceful or catastrophic.
Deinterlacing The process of converting interlaced video, such as common analog television signals or 1080i format HDTV signals, into a non-interlaced form.
Delay Correction When an electronic signal travels through electronic circuitry or even through long coaxial cable runs, delay problems may occur. This is manifested as a displaced image and special electronic circuitry is needed to correct it.
Demodulation An electronic circuit which separates the audio and video signals from the RF* carrier frequency.
Demo Reel A short piece of edited video or film footage showcasing a person's previous work.
Demultiplexing A reverse multiplexing process that extracts the original channels on the receiver end.
Demux A reverse multiplexing process that extracts the original channels on the receiver end.
Denoising The process of removing noise from a video signal.
Denouement In scriptwriting, the final resolution or conclusion of an intricate plot.
Depth Of Field (DOF) In an image , the distance between the closest and the farthest objects that are acceptably sharp.
Depth Of Focus The distance between the camera lens and the film or CCD that can be altered without blurring the iimage.
Descriptive Video Service (DVS) Descriptive Video Service provides a description of the setting and action of a film for those who cannot see using the second audio track of the video.
Device Independent Bitmap (BMP) A raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems.
Digital Cinematography The process of capturing (recording) a motion picture using digital image sensors rather than through film stock.
Digital Data Storage (DDS) A computer data storage technology that is based upon the digital audio tape (DAT) format that was developed during the 1980s.
Digital Disk Recorder (HDR) A system that uses a high-capacity hard disk to record digital audio or digital video. Hard disk recording systems represent an alternative to reel-to-reel audio tape recording and videotape recorders and provide editing capabilities unavailable to tape recorders.
Digital Intermediate (DI) The process of digitizing a film, manipulating the color and other characteristics and then re-outputting to film. It differs from the telecine process in that the final output is film, not tape.
Digitalization The process of converting a continuous analog video or audio signal to digital data (ones and zeros) for computer storage.
Digital Signal The result of the conversion of the original (analog) video signal into a pattern of bits. A digital signal has a discrete value at each sampling point, and its precision is a factor of how many samples get converted per unit of time.
Digital Signal 0 (DS0) A basic digital signaling rate of 64 kilobits per second (kbit/s), corresponding to the capacity of one analog voice-frequency-equivalent communication channel.
Digital Switchover The process in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television.
Digital Television Can refer to the digital video and audio signals that are broadcasted, or the digital television sets that decode the incoming signals.
Digital Television Transition The process in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television.
Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) A technology for terrestrial television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format.
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) A video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller, to a display device, such as a computer monitor.
Digital Watermarking Marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant signal such as audio, video, or image data.
Digital Zoom A method of decreasing the apparent angle of view of a digital photographic or video image.
Digitization The process of converting a continuous analog video or audio signal to digital data (ones and zeros) for computer storage.
DiiVA (DIVA) A proposal for a bi-directional audio/video interface for transmitting both compressed and uncompressed digital streams.
Dimensionality Richness of atmosphere or texture added to a film by means of smaller elements such as supporting characters, background actions or dialogue, or small details of the design.
Direct Lighting Lighting where more than 90% of the light goes directly from the source to the area you wish to illuminate.
Director The person who directs the making of a film, controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects, and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision.
Director's Cut An edited version of a film (or television episode, music video, commercial, or video game) that is supposed to represent the director's own approved edit.
Director Of Photography The person responsible for the camera and the lighting work during the production of a film or video.
Disc Description Protocol (DDP) A standard way of specifying what data is supplied, what processing is required, and exactly where the data is to be placed on the CD.Digital Data Storage.
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) A method of data compression of digital video pictures by resolving blocks of the picture into frequencies, amplitudes, and colors.
Display Data Channel (DDC) A collection of protocols for digital communication between a computer display and a graphics adapter that enable the display to communicate its supported display modes to the adapter and that enable the computer host to adjust monitor parameters, such as brightness and contrast.
Display Device An appliance, such as a monitor or television, that present the video signal in visual or tactile form.
DisplayPort A digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA).
Dissolve A transition between two scenes where the first merges imperceptibly into the second.
Distortion The deviation in shape or structure from the original shape or structure of an image or sound.
Dolby 5.1 Six-channel (five speakers and one subwoofer for bass) digital surround sound system by Dolby.
Dolby Atmos A surround sound technology developed by Dolby Laboratories.
Dolby Digital Audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories.
Dolby E An audio data compression and decoding technology that allows 6 to 8 channels of audio to be compressed into an AES3 digital audio stream that can be stored as a standard stereo pair of digital audio tracks.
Dolby SR A noise reduction format was developed by Dolby Laboratories and has been in common use in professional audio since 1986 and in cinema audio since the late 1980s.
Dolby TrueHD A lossless multi-channel audio codec developed by Dolby Laboratories which is used in home-entertainment equipment such as Blu-ray Disc players and A/V receivers.
Dolly A wheeled camera platform used for creating moving shots.
Dolly Grip A dedicated technician trained to operate the camera dolly.
Dolly Zoom In-camera effect that appears to undermine normal visual perception.
Dot Crawl A visual defect of color analog video standards when signals are transmitted as composite video, as in terrestrial broadcast television.
Dramatic Action The subtextual undercurrents and reciprocal actions that occur beneath the dialogue and physical actions of a screenplay.
Drawn-on-film Animation An animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock, as opposed to any other form of animation where the images or objects are photographed frame by frame with an animation camera.
Dynamic Rounding Dynamic Rounding is a technique devised by Quantel for truncating the word length of pixels – an unavoidable process when processing images.
Ear A flag up on the side of a lighting unit to block light.
Earset A headset combines a headphone with a microphone. Headsets are made with either a single-earpiece (mono) or a double-earpiece (mono to both ears or stereo). Headsets provide the equivalent functionality of a telephone handset but with handsfree operation.
Echo A reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound.
Edge Numbers A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of a 35 mm negative at intervals of one foot (16 frames or 64 perforations) and on a 16 mm negative at intervals of six inches (twenty frames).
Electret Condenser Microphone type incorporating a precharged element, eliminating need for bulky power sources.
Electric Arc A lighting unit that generates illumination from an electrical arc between two carbon electrodes.
Electronic Ballast A subtype of ballast that uses power electronics to provide a high-frequency voltage and controlled current for fluorescent lamps.
Electronic Field Production (EFP) Film-style production approach using a single camera to record on location. Typically shot for post-production application, non-live feed.
Electronic News-gathering (ENG) Use of portable video cameras, lighting and sound equipment to record news events in the field quickly, conveniently, and efficiently.
Electronic Program Guide (EPG) An application that provides an on-screen listing of all programming and content that an interactive television service subscriber or digital television viewer has available to them.
Electrotachyscope An early motion picture system developed by chronophotographer Ottomar Anschütz between 1886 and 1894.
Ellipsis The omission from a clause of one or more words that are nevertheless understood in the context of the remaining elements.
Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight (ERS) A type of stage lighting instrument, named for the ellipsoidal reflector used to collect and direct the light through a barrel that contains a lens or lens train.
Embedded Audio Digital audio that is multiplexed and carried within an SDI connection.
Emulsion The photo sensitive layer on a piece of film or paper.
Encode The process of writing data to a different format, usually for the purpose of compressing to a smaller size.
Encryption The process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
End Credits A list of the cast and crew of a particular motion picture, television program, or video game.
Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) An IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987.
Envelope Description of how a sound changes over time.
Euroconector An audio/video connector used in consumer equipment, especially in Europe.
European-style Terminal Block (EUROBLOCK) A low-voltage disconnectable (or pluggable) connector and terminal block combination commonly used for microphone- and line-level audio signals, and for control signals such as RS-232 or RS-485.
Exposition The insertion of background information within a story or narrative.
Exposure The amount of light per unit area reaching the image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance. A higher exposure will result in a brighter picture.
Exposure Value (EV) A number that represents a combination of a camera's shutter speed and f-number, such that all combinations that yield the same exposure have the same EV (for any fixed scene luminance).
External Rhythm Rhythm established by the duration of the shots that make up a scene.
Extra Accessory talent not essential to a production, assuming some peripheral on-camera role.
Extreme Close Up (XCU) The shot is so tight that only a detail of the subject, such as someone's eyes, can be seen.
Eyeline Match A technique where the editor cuts to a shot of something that a character is looking at off-screen.
F-number Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters.
F-ratio Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters.
F-stop Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters.
F-type Connector A coaxial RF connector commonly used for "over the air" terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or, in older installations, with RG-59/U cable.
F4A MPEG-4 Part 14 audio (.m4a) encrypted with the Adobe Access DRM scheme.
F4B MPEG-4 Part 14 audio for audiobooks and podcasts (.m4b) encrypted with the Adobe Access DRM scheme.
F4P File format and extension for Flash Video that contains media encrypted with their Adobe Access DRM scheme.
Fade The visual transition between an image and a black screen.
Fast Cutting A film editing technique that refers to several consecutive shots of a brief duration (e.g. 3 seconds or less).
Fauxtography Digitally manipulated photograph. Alternatively: using a camera and telling your subject you’re taking a photo, but secretly taking a video!
F Connector A coaxial RF connector commonly used for "over the air" terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or, in older installations, with RG-59/U cable.
Ffdshow An open source unmaintained codec mainly used for decoding of video in the MPEG-4 ASP (e.g. encoded with DivX or Xvid) and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video formats, but it supports numerous other video and audio formats as well.
Fiber Optics hin glass filaments within a jacket that optically transmits images or signals in the form of light around corners and over distances with extremely low losses.
Fibre Channel (FC) A high-speed data transfer protocol (commonly running at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 128 gigabit per second rates) providing in-order, lossless delivery of raw block data.
Field One-half of a complete television picture consisting of one complete vertical scan of the video image containing 262.5 line for NTSC and 312.5 lines for PAL. Two fields make up a complete television picture frame.
Field-sequential Color System (FSC) A color television system in which the primary color information is transmitted in successive images and which relies on the human vision system to fuse the successive images into a color picture.
Field Dominance The choice of which field of an interlaced video signal is chosen as the point at which video edits or switches occur.
Field Rate The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer.
Filament The wire coil that is heated to produce lighting in incandescent and halogen lamps, normally made from tungsten.
File Footage Video footage that can be used again in other films.
File Format The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame.
Fill Leader Film leader used to fill in the blanks in picture workprint
Fill Light The light that provides a soft-edged field of light used to provide additional subject illumination to reduce harsh shadows or areas not highlighted by the key light.
Film A dramatic performance recorded as a moving image, whether on film, videotape or digital media.
Film Chain Projectors, multiplexors and cameras, connected for the purpose of transferring film to video.
Film Crew A group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture.
Film Director The person who directs the making of a film, controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects, and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision.
Film Frame One of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture.
Film Grain The grain of photographic film is a signal-dependent noise, with similar statistical distribution to shot noise.
Film Leader A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine.
Filmmaking The process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
Film Noir Usually refers to the classic black and white film noir style used in detective mysteries, typically employing hard lighting and dark, low key lighting.
Film Perforations (PERF) Square holes in the side of a roll of film that is used to wind it through the camera or projector's mechanism.
Film Plane The area inside any camera or image taking device with a lens and film or digital sensor upon which the lens creates the focused image.
Film Production The process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
Film Scanner A device made for scanning photographic film directly into a computer without the use of any intermediate printmaking.
Film Score The original-music composition for a motion picture or television production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited.
Film Stock A term to describe a film that is used for shooting and reproduction.
Filmstrip A form of still image instructional multimedia, once commonly used by educators in primary and secondary schools (K-12), overtaken at the end of the 1980s by newer and increasingly lower-cost full-motion videocassettes and later on by DVDs.
Film Treatment A piece of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and the first draft of a screenplay for a motion picture, television program, or radio play.
Filter A transparent material having the ability to absorb certain wavelengths of light and transmit others.
Filter Graph Used in multimedia processing - for example, to capture video from a webcam. Filters take input, process it (or change the input), and then output the processed data.
Firewire An interface standard that is commonly used for connecting hard drives and cameras to computers.
Flange Back Distance (FFL) The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane.
Flange Focal Depth (FFL) The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane.
Flange Focal Distance (FFL) The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane.
Flange Focal Length (FFL) The distance from the mounting flange (the interlocking metal rings on the camera and the rear of the lens) to the film or image sensor plane.
Flare Bright flashes and/or extreme contrast reduction evident in picture, caused by excessive light beaming into a camera's lens and reflecting off its internal glass elements
Flashback An interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point in the story.
Flash Cut A very quick shot that can have an almost subliminal effect. These shots can sometimes be as short as one frame.
Flashforward A scene that temporarily takes the narrative forward in time from the current point of the story in literature, film, television and other media.
Flash Video A container file format used to deliver digital video content (e.g., TV shows, movies, etc.) over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player version 6 and newer.
Flat A term used to describe a film that was not shot with an anamorphic lens.
Flat-panel Display (FPD) An electronic viewing device used to enable people to see content (still images, moving images, text, or other visual material) in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, and mobile devices, and many types of medical, transportation and industrial equipment.
Flat Lighting Illumination characterized by even, diffused light without shadows, highlights, or contrast.
Flex File A computer-generated file that establishes the relationship between timecode, keykode and often audio timecode.
Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) An open standard defining a digital file format useful for storage, transmission and processing of data: formatted as multi-dimensional arrays (for example a 2D image), or tables.
Flicker The alternation of light and dark which can be visually perceived.
Floodlight Radiates a diffused, scattered blanket of light with soft, indistinct shadow
Flop To position an image back-to-front so that the left side is now positioned on the right and vice versa.
Flop-over An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right.
Flow Motion A visual effect or visual impression of detaching the time and space of a camera (or viewer) from those of its visible subject.
Fluid Head Tripod mount type containing viscous fluid which lubricates moving parts, dampens friction. Design facilitates smooth camera moves, alleviates jerkiness.
Fluorescent Lamp A low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Flutter The rapid variation of amplitude, phase, or frequency that causes the video to move back and forth very rapidly.
Flux An amount of light which is present as measured in lumens.
FLV File format and extension for Flash Video that contain material encoded with codecs following the Sorenson Spark or VP6 video compression formats.
Flying Erase Heads Facilitates smooth, seamless edits whenever the camcorder recording begins. Without a flying erase head, a video "glitch" may occur at scene transitions. The erase head is mounted on the spinning (flying) video head drum.
Foamcore Polystyrene which is sandwiched between paper.
Focal Length A measure of the distance, in millimeters, between the optical centre of the lens and the camera’s sensor.
Focal Ratio Numbers corresponding to the variable size of the camera's iris opening, and thus amount of light passing through the lens. The higher the number, the less light enters.
Focus The area on which compositional elements converge. Typically refers to the sharpest elements in the image.
Focus Pull Shifting focus between subjects in the background and foreground so a viewer’s attention moves from subject to subject as the focus shifts.
Foley The art of reproducing and creating sounds for film.
Foley Artist A person who records sound effects using the foley process.
Foley Walker A person who records sound effects using the foley process.
Follow Focus A control mechanism that allows you to easily make changes on the focus ring of your camera lens.
Follow Shot A specific camera angle in which the subject being filmed is seemingly pursued by the camera, for example by a Steadicam.
Foot A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine.
Foot-candle Measurement unit for illuminance, or lumens per unit of area. One foot-candle is equivalent to one lumen per square foot
Footage Main footage used in production. Contrast with B-roll.
Footage Numbers A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of a 35 mm negative at intervals of one foot (16 frames or 64 perforations) and on a 16 mm negative at intervals of six inches (twenty frames).
Forced Perspective A technique that employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther away, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is.
Foreshadowing In a script, the area where a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story.
Format The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame.
Framestore Memory used to store a complete frame of video.
Frame Synchronization A digital electronic device which synchronizes two or more video signals. The frame synchronizer uses one of its inputs as a reference and genlocks the other video signals to the reference's sync and color burst signals.
Framing Act of composing a shot in a camcorder’s viewfinder for desired content, angle and field of view.
Fraunhofer FDK AAC An open-source software library for encoding and decoding Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) format audio, developed by Fraunhofer IIS, and included as part of Android.
Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) An audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.
Free Viewpoint Television (FTV) A system for viewing natural video, allowing the user to interactively control the viewpoint and generate new views of a dynamic scene from any 3D position.
Freeze An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated in order to appear stationary when it is projected.
Freeze Frame An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated in order to appear stationary when it is projected.
Frequency The number of times a signal vibrates each second as expressed in cycles per second (cps) or Hertz (Hz).
Frequency Modulation (FM) Frequency modulation is a process used for radio (FM broadcast) and television audio transmission and videotape recording.
Frequency Response A measure of the effectiveness with which a circuit, device, or system processes and transmits signals fed into it, as a function of the signal frequency.
Fresnel Lens A type of lens placed in front of lamps in order to focus the light given off into a controllable beam.
Front Projection Effect An in-camera visual effects process in film production for combining foreground performance with pre-filmed background footage.
Frosted Lens A white lens that is translucent but not transparent, which diffuses the output of a lamp.
Frozen Moment A visual effect or visual impression of detaching the time and space of a camera (or viewer) from those of its visible subject.
Fujifilm X-mount A type of interchangeable lens mount designed by Fujifilm for use in those cameras in their X-series line that have interchangeable-lenses.
Full Field A complete frame of video that is comprised of two fields.
Full Frame The process of formatting a wide-screen film onto video by selecting the area of the film frame to show in order to accommodate the different aspect ratios of wide-screen film and television.
Full HD A set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically.
Full Height Anamorphic (FHA) A process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium with a narrower aspect ratio.
Full Raster A full frame image that has not been squeezed to preserve bandwidth. The opposite of thin raster.
Full Screen A video which has been altered to the 4:3 (or 1.33:1) aspect ratio of the old standard television screen.
Generation The number of duplication steps between an original recording and a given copy. A second generation duplicate is a copy of the original master and a third-generation duplicate is a copy of a copy of the original master, etc.
Generation Loss When an analog master videotape is duplicated, the second-generation copy is usually inferior in some way to the master.
Genlock A device which enables a composite display (usually a TV) to combine two signals simultaneously by locking one while processing the other. Acronymn for "generator locking device."
Genre A type of film for which the audience has a set of particular expectations based on cultural conventions.
Grain The random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small particles of a metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver halide that have received enough photons.
Grand Alliance (GA) The consortium created in 1993 at the behest of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop the American digital television (SDTV, EDTV) and HDTV specification, with the aim of pooling the best work from different companies.
Graphic Match A cut made on action or movement between two shots in which the action has been overlapped either by repetition of the action or by the use of more than one camera.
Graphics Coordinator An individual who works, usually on a television show, as a producer of on-air still and motion graphics.
Green Screen Chroma key compositing is a technique used for layering two images or video streams together based on matching color hues.
Grip Production crew stagehand responsible for handling equipment, props, and scenery before, during, and after production.
Gross Bit Rate (DSR) The aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system.
Group Delay A phenomenon involving timing differences between video signal components. For example, a long cable run may introduce a substantial delay between the transmission of the color and brightness video information resulting in shadows.
H.120 The first digital video compression standard, developed by COST 211 and published by the CCITT (now the ITU-T) in 1984, with a revision in 1988 that included contributions proposed by other organizations.
H.261 An ITU-T video compression standard first ratified in November 1988.
H.262 A standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".
H.263 A video compression standard originally designed as a low-bit-rate compressed format for videoconferencing.
H.264 The name of the most common video compression standard for high-definition digital video for resolutions up to 8K. Also known as MPEG-4 AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10.
H.265 (HEVC) A video compression standard, designed as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10).
H.320 A umbrella Recommendation by the ITU-T for running Multimedia (Audio/Video/Data) over ISDN based networks.
Hair Light Light placed behind the subject to create a glamorous halo effect on the hair or a rugged-looking highlight on the cheek. Helps separate the subject from the background.
Hard Disk Recorder (HDR) A system that uses a high-capacity hard disk to record digital audio or digital video. Hard disk recording systems represent an alternative to reel-to-reel audio tape recording and videotape recorders and provide editing capabilities unavailable to tape recorders.
Hard Light Type of lighting that creates brilliant highlights and sharp shadows.
Hardware Acceleration The use of computer hardware specially made to perform some functions more efficiently than is possible in software running on a general-purpose central processing unit (CPU).
Harmonic Distortion When any signal is passed through an electronic circuit, the signal may be changed in many ways. In video, the image may become blurred, noisy or contain shadows. In audio, odd harmonics (third, fifth, etc.) produce harsh and unpleasant sounding audio.
HDBaseT A consumer electronic (CE) and commercial connectivity standard for transmission of uncompressed high-definition video (HD), audio, power, home networking, Ethernet, USB, and some control signals, over a common category cable (Cat5e or above) using the same 8P8C modular connectors used by Ethernet.
HDCAM A high-definition video digital recording videocassette version of digital Betacam.
HDCAM SR A standard for HDCAM that uses a higher particle density tape and is capable of recording in 10 bits 4:2:2 or 4:4:4 RGB with a video bit rate of 440 Mbit/s, and a total data rate of approximately 600 Mbit/s.
HDCP (acr.) High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection.
Head Leader A length of film attached to the head or tail of a film to assist in threading a projector or telecine.
Headroom Space between the top of a subject’s head and a monitor’s upper-screen edge.
Headset A headset combines a headphone with a microphone. Headsets are made with either a single-earpiece (mono) or a double-earpiece (mono to both ears or stereo). Headsets provide the equivalent functionality of a telephone handset but with handsfree operation.
Headshot A modern (usually digital) portrait in which the focus is on the person.
Heart Wipe A wipe that takes the shape of a growing or shrinking heart, and is used to impart a sense of "love" or "friendship".
Heatsink A passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
Helical Scan A method of recording video information diagonally on a tape, used in home and professional VCRs.
High-definition Television (HDTV) Refers to any or all of television system formats (analog or digital) that can display at a higher resolution than those of old standards.
High-dynamic-range Imaging (HDRI) A technique used in photographic imaging and films to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than what is possible with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques.
High-efficiency Plasma (HEP) An emerging lighting technology that uses radiofrequency to stimulate a contained gas and create a small but very bright ball of plasma.
High-intensity Discharge Lamp (HID) A type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.
High-key Lighting A style of lighting for film, television, or photography that aims to reduce the lighting ratio present in the scene.
High-Pass Filter (HPF) An electronic filter used in various audio circuits to attenuate all frequencies below a chosen frequency.
High-shelf Filter An audio filter that allows allows frequencies above a certain threshold to pass through while reducing lower ones.
High Definition Digital Versatile Disc (HD DVD) An obsolete high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video. Supported principally by Toshiba, HD DVD was envisioned to be the successor to the standard DVD format.
High Dynamic Range (HDR) The compositing of two images, one that properly exposes the highlights, and another that properly exposes the dark areas. When composited together, you get a properly exposed image.
Hook The nucleus of both a film and its screenplay.
Horizontal Blanking Interval The time between the end of one scanning line and the beginning of the next. The vertical blanking interval is the time between the end of one video field* and the beginning of the next.
Horizontal Resolution Specification denoting the amount of discernable detail across a screen's width. Measured in lines or dots per inch, the higher the number the better the picture quality.
Horizontal Scan Rate Horizontal scan rate, or horizontal frequency, usually expressed in kilohertz, is the frequency at which a CRT moves the electron beam from the left side of the display to the right and back, and therefore describes the number of horizontal lines displayed per second.
Hot Shoe A mounting point at the top of some cameras that allow you to attach a flash unit, microphones or other accessories.
House Sync A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video.
HSL/HSV (HSL) Acronymns for Hue, Saturation, Lightness (HSL) and Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) . HSL and HSV are color space naming conventions that allow for selecting colors more intuitively than by entering RGB or CMYK numbers.
Hydrargyrum Medium-arc Iodide (HMI) Device that emits light via pressurized mercury vapor and metal halides. Ideal for imitating daylight, they keep relatively cool and have a very high light output. HMI light has a color temperature of around 5600K.
I-frame An I‑frame (Intra-coded picture) is a complete image, like a JPG or BMP image file. I‑frames are the least compressible but don't require other video frames to decode.
I.LINK An interface standard that is commonly used for connecting hard drives and cameras to computers.
I2S An electrical serial bus interface standard used for connecting digital audio devices together.
IBM 8514 An IBM graphics computer display standard supporting a display resolution of 1024x768 pixels with 256 colors at 43.5 Hz (interlaced; 87 fields per second), or 640x480 at 60 Hz (non-interlaced). 8514 usually refers to the display controller hardware (such as the 8514/A display adapter.)
IEC (acr.) International Electrotechnical Commission.
IEC 60958 Type I A standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices. Commonly known as S/PDIF.
IEC 60958 Type II A type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances.
IEEE (acr.) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Image Sensor A sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current that convey the information.
Image Stabilization A camcorder feature which takes out minor picture shakiness, either optically or electronically.
Impedance The measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. The term complex impedance may be used interchangeably.
Impedance Matching A video signal occupies a wide spectrum of frequencies, from nearly DC (0 Hz) to 6 MHz. If the output impedance of either the video source, cable or input impedance of the receiving equipment are not properly matched, a series of problems may arise.
IMTC (acr.) International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium.
In-camera Editing A technique where, instead of editing the shots in a film into the sequence after shooting, the director or cinematographer instead shoots the sequences in strict order.
In-camera Effect Any special effect in a video or movie that is created solely by using techniques in and on the camera and/or its parts.
Inbetweening The process of generating intermediate frames between two images, called key frames, to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) A set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.
Intellectual Property Rights Rights including patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) An international standards organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
Internet Video The general field that deals with the transmission of video over the Internet.
Interpolation A form of video processing in which intermediate animation frames are generated between existing ones by means of interpolation, in an attempt to make animation more fluid and to compensate for display motion blur.
Interpositive (IP) An orange-based motion picture film with a positive image made from the edited camera negative.
Intertitle Titles within the main body of a moving image, such as dialogue, continuity, and informational titles. Intertitles are mainly found in silent films.
I‑frames In the field of video compression, a video frame is compressed using different algorithms with different advantages and disadvantages, centered mainly around the amount of data compression.
J-cut A type of cut in which the sound of the next scene precedes the picture.
Jack Any female socket or receptacle, usually on the backside of video and audio equipment, that accepts plug for a circuit connection.
Jaggies The informal name for artifacts in raster images, most frequently from aliasing, which in turn is often caused by non-linear mixing effects producing high-frequency components, or missing or poor anti-aliasing filtering prior to sampling.
Jam Sync Process of synchronizing a secondary time code generator with a selected master time code.
Jib A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other.
Jib Arm A boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other.
Jingle A short song or tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses.
Jitter The displacement of random horizontal lines in video frames. Jitter is the result of a loss of data between devices due to interference, cross-talk and other network disruptions.
Jog Manual control that facilitates viewing and editing precision and convenience
Joint A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording.
JPEG JPEG is a digital compression standard for still video images that allows the image to occupy less memory or disk space. Like the MPEG standard, it includes options for trading off between storage space and image quality.
JPEG Extended Range (JPEG XR) A still-image compression standard and file format for continuous tone photographic images, based on technology originally developed and patented by Microsoft under the name HD Photo (formerly Windows Media Photo).
Kell Factor A parameter used to limit the bandwidth of a sampled image signal to avoid the appearance of beat frequency patterns when displaying the image in a discrete display device, usually taken to be 0.7.
Kelvin (K) The unit of measurement used for color temperatures.
Kerning The process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result.
KeyCode An Eastman Kodak Company advancement on edge numbers, which are letters, numbers, and symbols placed at regular intervals along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm film to allow for frame-by-frame specific identification.
Key Frame A frame that contains a record of specific settings.
Key Grip The person that supervises all grip (lighting and rigging) crews and reports to the director of photography.
Keying The combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene.
Keykode An Eastman Kodak Company advancement on edge numbers, which are letters, numbers, and symbols placed at regular intervals along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm film to allow for frame-by-frame specific identification.
Key Numbers A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of a 35 mm negative at intervals of one foot (16 frames or 64 perforations) and on a 16 mm negative at intervals of six inches (twenty frames).
Keystone Effect Perspective distortion from a flat object being shot by a camera at other than a perpendicular angle.
Kick An object with a shine or reflection on it from another object.
Kicker Light placed behind the subject to create a glamorous halo effect on the hair or a rugged-looking highlight on the cheek. Helps separate the subject from the background.
Kilohertz (HZ) The unit of measurement for the number of cycles per second. 1Hz = 1 cycle per second.
Kilowatt (KW) Measurement unit for electric power, equivalent to 1000 watts.
Kine A method of making a film copy of a television program in the days before the existence of Video Recorders.
Kinemacolor The first successful colour motion picture process, used commercially from 1908 to 1914.
Kinescope A method of making a film copy of a television program in the days before the existence of Video Recorders.
Kuleshov Effect A film editing (montage) effect demonstrated by Soviet filmmaker Lev Kuleshov in the 1910s and 1920s. It is a mental phenomenon by which viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation.
Lap Dissolve Transitioning between two scenes by fading out of the first as the next one becomes clearer.
LaserDisc (LD) A laser optical (reflective) video recording system that uses an analog technique called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to represent video information on a grooveless, smooth, round plastic disc.
Latency A time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.
Latitude The extent to which a light-sensitive material can be overexposed or underexposed and still achieve an acceptable result.
Lightning A proprietary computer bus and power connector created and designed by Apple Inc.
Line 21 Captions The standard for closed captioning analog television broadcasts in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Linear Narrative In scriptwriting, linear narrative is the most common form of narration, where events are largely portrayed in chronological order, that is: telling the events in the order in which they occurred.
Linear Timecode (LTC) An encoding of SMPTE timecode data in an audio signal, as defined in SMPTE 12M specification.
Line Doubler A device or algorithm used to deinterlace video signals prior to display on a progressive scan display.
Line Producer A type of film producer who is the key manager during daily operations of a feature film, advertisement film, television film, or an episode of a TV program.
Micro-DVI A proprietary video output port found in the original MacBook Air.
MicroDVD A subtitle file format for digital video.
Microphone Impedance In order to obtain the highest quality output signal from a microphone, a preamplifier input should provide a load (impedance) which exactly matches a microphone's output impedance.
Microscanning A method for increasing the resolution of digital cameras.
Microsoft Digital Video Recording (DVR-MS) A proprietary video and audio file container format, developed by Microsoft used for storing TV content recorded by Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows Vista and Windows 7.
Microsoft Media Server (MMS) A Microsoft proprietary network-streaming protocol serves to transfer unicast data in Windows Media Services (previously called NetShow Services).
Microsoft Video 1 (MS-CRAM) An early lossy video compression and decompression algorithm (codec) that was released with version 1.0 of Microsoft's Video for Windows in November 1992.
Mid-Side A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are incorporated into a special configuration for recording.
MiniDP (MDP) A miniaturized version of the DisplayPort audio-visual digital interface.
Mirror Image An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right.
Mise-en-scène The stage design and arrangement of actors in scenes for a theatre or film production, both in visual arts through storyboarding, visual theme, and cinematography, and in narrative storytelling through the direction.
Mix The result of combining combining audio signals from different sources, such as microphones, instruments, recordings, etc.
Mix Cue Sheet A sheet having several columns for notations of footage, fades. volume levels, and equalizations which are used in mixing sound tracks where each column usually represents one track.
Mobile Content Any type of electronic media which is viewed or used on mobile phones, like ringtones, graphics, discount offers, games, movies, and GPS navigation.
Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL) An industry standard for a mobile audio/video interface that allows the connection of smartphones, tablets, and other portable consumer electronics devices to high-definition televisions (HDTVs), audio receivers, and projectors.
Modem A hardware device that converts data into a format suitable for a transmission medium so that it can be transmitted from one computer to another (historically along telephone wires).
Modulation A process that converts mutimedia information to an electrical or optical signal before it is transmitted. The reverse process (demodulation) converts the signal back to the original blend of audio, video, image and text.
Moiré A distracting wavy effect produced when converging lines in a video image are nearly parallel to a monitor's scanning lines.
Monaural Sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position.
Money Shot A moving or stationary visual element of a film, video, television broadcast, or print publication that is disproportionately expensive to produce or is perceived as essential to the overall importance or revenue-generating potential of the work.
Monitor A screen device capable of accepting direct input from a video source.
Monkey's Audio An algorithm and file format for lossless audio data compression.
Mono Sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position.
Motif A recurring image, sound, line, action or another element that makes a symbolic, allegorical, metaphoric or thematic point in a movie.
Motion-compensated Frame Interpolation A form of video processing in which intermediate animation frames are generated between existing ones by means of interpolation, in an attempt to make animation more fluid and to compensate for display motion blur.
Motion Artifact Visual interference caused by the difference between the frame rate of the camera and the motion of the object. The most common display of this is when filming a computer or television screen
Motion Blur The apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph or a sequence of frames, such as a film or animation.
Motion Capture (MOCAP) The process of digitally recording an actor's movement in order to apply this movement to a computer-generated object.
Motion Compensation An algorithmic technique used to predict a frame in a video, given the previous and/or future frames by accounting for motion of the camera and/or objects in the video.
Motion Control The process of controlling the motion of the camera by a computer in order to obtain precise control over its movement.
Motion Estimation The process of determining motion vectors that describe the transformation from one 2D image to another; usually from adjacent frames in a video sequence.
Motion Graphic Design A subset of graphic design in that it uses graphic design principles in a filmmaking or video production context (or other temporally evolving visual media) through the use of animation or filmic techniques.
Motion Graphics Pieces of animation or digital footage which create the illusion of motion or rotation, and are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects.
Motion Interpolation A form of video processing in which intermediate animation frames are generated between existing ones by means of interpolation, in an attempt to make animation more fluid and to compensate for display motion blur.
Motion JPEG (MJPEG) A video compression format in which each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is compressed separately as a JPEG image.
MPEG-1 A group of picture blocks, usually four, which are analyzed during MPEG coding to give an estimate of the movement between frames
MPEG-1 Audio Layer I (MP1) A deliberately simplified version of MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, created for applications where lower compression efficiency could be tolerated in return for a less complex algorithm that could be executed with simpler hardware requirements.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2) A lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).
MPEG-1 Part 2 The MPEG-1 standard covering video and is defined in ISO/IEC-11172-2. The design was heavily influenced by H.261.
MPEG-2 A standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".
Multimedia Content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video, and interactive content.
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) A point-to-multipoint interface specification for existing and upcoming 3GPP cellular networks, which is designed to provide efficient delivery of broadcast and multicast services, both within a cell as well as within the core network.
Multipath Interference A phenomenon in the physics of waves whereby a wave from a source travels to a detector via two or more paths and, under the right condition, the two (or more) components of the wave interfere.
Nanosecond (NS) One billionth of a second. An indication of the precision required in the timing of video signals.
Narrative An account of a series of related events, experiences, or the like, whether true (episode, vignette, travelogue, memoir, autobiography, biography) or fictitious (fairy tale, fable, story, epic, legend, novel).
Narrative Arc The parabolic shift in polar attitudes of a character from point A to point B during the course of a story.
Negative An image those tonal values which are the opposite (black & white) or complement (color) of those in the original subject.
Negative Conforming The process of cutting motion picture negative to match precisely the final edit as specified by the film editor.
Negative Cutter A person who performs negative cutting: the physically cuts the film negative according to the cut list and then splices the film together in the desired order, ready for the final print.
Negative Cutting The process of cutting motion picture negative to match precisely the final edit as specified by the film editor.
Negative Matching The process of cutting motion picture negative to match precisely the final edit as specified by the film editor.
NEMA (acr.) National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
Nickel Metal Hydride (NIMH) A type of battery used in some lower-end cameras. Although cheaper than Lithium ion batteries, they tend to lose charge when not in use and don’t provide as much overall power.
Noise Gate An electronic process used to reduce noise levels in audio and video. In the video, the most effective noise reduction is accomplished by digitizing the video signal and carrying out a computerized pixel by pixel analysis of the data.
Nonanamorphic Widescreen A film process that achieves the wide-screen effect \without optically compressing the image or requiring the use of special projection techniques.
Noninterlaced Scanning A format of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence.
Noninterlaced Video Process of scanning complete frames in one pass, painting every line on the screen, yielding higher picture quality than that of interlaced video. Most computers produce a noninterlaced video signal; NTSC is interlaced.
Nonlinear A system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.
Nonlinear Editing (NLE) A form of audio, video, and image editing in which the original content is not modified in the course of editing.
Nonlinearity The amount by which a measured video signal output differs from a standard video signal output.
Opening Credits Titles shown at the very beginning of a movie, listing the most important members of the production.
OpenLDI A high-bandwidth digital-video interface standard for connecting graphics/video processors to flat panel LCD monitors.
Open Matte A filming technique that involves matting out the top and bottom of the film frame in the movie projector (known as a soft matte) for the widescreen theatrical release and then scanning the film without a matte (at Academy ratio) for a full-screen home video release.
Open Media Framework (OMF) A file format intended for transferring media between different software applications on different platforms.
Operating System (OS) System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.
Optical Carrier Transmission Rates Optical Carrier transmission rates are a standardized set of specifications of transmission bandwidth for digital signals that can be carried on Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) fiber-optic networks.
Optical Disc (OD) A flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium ) on one of its flat surfaces.
Optical Effect The combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene.
Optical Fiber hin glass filaments within a jacket that optically transmits images or signals in the form of light around corners and over distances with extremely low losses.
Optical Printer A printer in which an image of the original is transferred to raw film stock by means of light and a lens system.
Opticals Shots composited in an optical printer to be output to film.
Optical Sound An analog soundtrack printed on film that takes the form of a varying sound wave.
Optical Videodisc (LD) A laser optical (reflective) video recording system that uses an analog technique called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to represent video information on a grooveless, smooth, round plastic disc.
Optical Zoom The lens’ ability to change the focal length either closer to or further from a central subject.
OpTrans Translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera, theatre, or other musical performances.
Opus A lossy audio coding format designed to efficiently code speech and general audio in a single format, while remaining low-latency enough for real-time interactive communication and low-complexity enough for low-end embedded processors.
Organic Light-emitting Diode (OLED) A light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of an organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.
Palette A finite set of colors in no particular order.
Pan And Scan The process of formatting a wide-screen film onto video by selecting the area of the film frame to show in order to accommodate the different aspect ratios of wide-screen film and television.
Panning Fixed, lateral movements made with a camera.
Pantone (PMS) A company headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey, best known for its Pantone Matching System (PMS), a proprietary color space used in a variety of industries notably graphic design, fashion design, etc.
Peak Signal-to-noise Ratio (PSNR) An engineering term for the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of corrupting noise that affects the fidelity of its representation.
Pedestal The voltage level produced at the end of each horizontal picture line which separates the portion of the video signal containing the picture information from the portion containing the synchronizing information.
Peg A standard clothespin used to affix gels to barn doors and other "hot" items.
Period In scriptwriting, a historical time and place that serves as the setting or “special world” of a story.
Periodic Noise An image affected by periodic noise will look like a repeating pattern has been added on top of the original image.
Persistence Of Vision The optical illusion that occurs when visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays of light proceeding from it has ceased to enter the eye.
Petzval Field Curvature The optical aberration in which a flat object normal to the optical axis (or a non-flat object past the hyperfocal distance) cannot be brought properly into focus on a flat image plane.
Phenakistiscope First widespread animation device that created a fluent illusion of motion.
Phone Connector A sturdy male connector compatible with audio accessories, particularly for insertion of microphone and headphone cables.
Phone Plug A sturdy male connector compatible with audio accessories, particularly for insertion of microphone and headphone cables.
Phono Plug A type of connector used on all consumer VCRs and camcorders to carry the standard composite* video and audio signals.
Photoconductivity An optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation.
Photocurrent The electric current through a photosensitive device, such as a photodiode, as the result of exposure to radiant power.
Pitch Control Increasing or decreasing tape speed to match the musical pitch of the playback.
Pixel The smallest addressable element on a screen or display device.
Pixel Aspect Ratio (PAR) A mathematical ratio that describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel.
Pixelation The display of large, blocky pixels in an image caused by over-enlarging it.
Pixel Density Measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digitizing device such as a camera or image scanner.
Pixels Per Centimetre Measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digitizing device such as a camera or image scanner.
Pixels Per Inch Measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digitizing device such as a camera or image scanner.
Plane Reflector A large white card made of foam or poster board used to reflect soft light.
Plasma Display (PDP) A type of flat panel display that uses small cells containing plasma: ionized gas that responds to electric fields.
Plasma Screen Display screens comprised of hundreds of thousands of tiny gas-filled cells sandwiched between two sheets of glass.
Plate Shot An empty shot of a background with no foreground elements, often for removing certain foreground elements from the scene such as light stands, wires and rigging in the visual effects stage.
Playback Videotaped material viewed and heard as recorded, facilitated by camcorder or VCR.
Plenoptic Camera A camera that captures information about the light field emanating from a scene.
Plot Action In scriptwriting: refers to the physical actions and story points that propel a story through to a climax and resolution.
Plot Device Any technique in a narrative used to move the plot forward.
Plot Pay-off In scriptwriting: the consequence or outcome of a plot point or story element that is set-up earlier in a screenplay.
Plot Point In scriptwriting: the consequence or outcome of a plot point or story element that is set-up earlier in a screenplay.
PLS A computer file format for a multimedia playlist.
Plugin Third-party software created to add a new feature to an application, such as Premiere or After Effects.
Point-to-multipoint (P2MP) Fixed wireless data communications for Internet or voice over IP via radio or microwave frequencies in the gigahertz range.
Point Of View (POV) A shot that shows the perspective from a character or object’s position in the scene's setting.
Polarization A property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Polarizing Filter A piece of glass that fits over the front end of a lens to change the way that your camera sees and treats light, while ultimately cutting down on glare.
Pop Filter A noise protection filter for microphones, typically used in a recording studio. It serves to reduce or eliminate popping sounds caused by the mechanical impact of fast-moving air on the microphone during recorded speech and singing.
Pop Screen A noise protection filter for microphones, typically used in a recording studio. It serves to reduce or eliminate popping sounds caused by the mechanical impact of fast-moving air on the microphone during recorded speech and singing.
Pop Shield A noise protection filter for microphones, typically used in a recording studio. It serves to reduce or eliminate popping sounds caused by the mechanical impact of fast-moving air on the microphone during recorded speech and singing.
PortAudio An open-source computer library for audio playback and recording.
Positive Print A film print created from a negative that is suitable for projection.
Post-classical Editing A style of editing characterized by shorter shot lengths, faster cuts between shots, and containing more jump shots and close-ups than classical editing characteristic of films prior to the 1960s.
Post-Production The period in a project's development that takes place after the picture is delivered, or "after the production."
Posterization Electronic special effect transforming a normal video image into a collage of flattened single-colored areas, without graduations of color and brightness.
Predicted Picture A P‑frame (Predicted picture) holds only the changes in the image from the previous frame. P‑frames can use data from previous frames to decompress and are more compressible than I‑frames.
Prescoring Recording of music or other sound prior to the shooting of the picture which is to accompany it. The most common usage is in animated film.
Presence The sound in a room. It is recorded and intercut with dialogue to smooth out any editing points.
Print A version of a film intended for projection.
Prism Shutter A device used on many film viewers, editing machines, and some high-speed cameras, consisting of a rotating prism of four or more sides through which the viewer light passes as film is pulled continuously through it.
Private: Chromakey Method of electronically inserting an image from one video source into the image of another through areas designated as its "key color." It is frequently used on news programs to display weather graphics behind the talent.
Private: Dollying A camera shot that physically advances or changes the position of the camera relative to the subject, changing the spatial relations between a subject and its surroundings.
Private: Downstream Keying Electronically superimposing text or graphics over a scene (luminance key) or of placing one video image into another (chroma key). The Downstream Key signal must be genlocked to the other signals.
Private: Drop Frame A type of SMPTE time code designed to exactly match the real-time of common clocks.
Private: Edit Controller Electronic programmer used in conjunction with VCRs/camcorders to facilitate automated videotape editing with speed, precision, and convenience.
Private: Film-style Out-of-sequence shooting approach, to be edited in appropriate order at post-production stage. Advantageous for concentrating on and completing recording at one location at a time, continuity and convenience assured.
Private: Friction Head Tripod mount type with strong spring that counterbalances camera weight, relying on friction to hold its position. More appropriate for still photography than movement-oriented videomaking.
Private: Horizontal Mattes The result of converting a film from widescreen aspect ratio to standard. Letterboxing creates black areas above and below the original clip to make up for missing content.
Private: Render Time The time it takes an editing computer to composite source elements and commands into a single video file so the sequence, including titles and transition effects, can play in full motion.
Private: Roll Text or graphics, usually credits, that move up or down the screen, typically from bottom to top.
Private: Safe Title Area The recommended area that will produce legible titles on most TV screens; 80 percent of the visible area, measured from the center.
Private: Y M C Numbers The 'timing lights' that the negative is printed at, representing the numerical value of the red, blue and green lights used in the printing process. These printing lights are referred to by their complements: yellow, magenta, and cyan.
Private: Zero Cut A method of preparing A and B rolls for printing in which the original shots overlap several frames or more. The change from one roll to another to match the edited workprint is done automatically by the printer.
Prizma A color television system in which the primary color information is transmitted in successive images and which relies on the human vision system to fuse the successive images into a color picture.
ProcAmp A device used to alter, change or clean video or audio signal components or parameters in realtime.
Processing Amplifier A device used to alter, change or clean video or audio signal components or parameters in realtime.
Process Photography A technique where the actor stands in front of a screen and the background is projected onto the screen behind them.
Process Shot A shot that will be composited from two other shots. The background part of this process is called a 'plate'.
Production Report (PR) A filmmaking term for the form filled out each day of production of a movie or television show to summarize what occurred that day.
Production Schedule Project plan of how the production budget will be spent over a given timescale, for every phase of a business project.
Production Sound Recording and/or mixing sound on location during the film or video shoot.
Professional Disc (PFD) A digital recording optical disc format introduced by Sony in 2003 primarily for XDCAM, its tapeless camcorder system.
Program And System Information Protocol (PSIP) The MPEG (a video and audio industry group) and privately defined program-specific information originally defined by General Instrument for the DigiCipher 2 system and later extended for the ATSC digital television system for carrying metadata about each channel in the broadcast MPEG transport stream of a television station and for publishing information about television programs so that viewers can select what to watch by title and description.
Quad HD (QHD) A display resolution of 2560 × 1440 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio.
Quadraphonic Sound reproduction that uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another.
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) A family of digital modulation methods and a related family of analog modulation methods widely used in modern telecommunications to transmit information.
Random-access Memory (RAM) A form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code.
Rapid Rectilinear A lens that is symmetrical about its aperture stop with four elements in two groups.
Raster The pattern of parallel horizontal scanning lines, traced by a video monitor's electron beam, making up a video image.
Raster Image The 2-D array of pixels representing video and graphics.
Rasterization The task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (a series of pixels, dots, or lines, which, when displayed together, create the image which was represented via shapes).
Raster Scan The rectangular pattern of image capture and reconstruction in television.
Raw Image Format A proprietary file format containing the entire unprocessed information captured by the sensors..
RCA Connector A type of connector used on all consumer VCRs and camcorders to carry the standard composite* video and audio signals.
Re-recording The process of mixing all edited music, effects and dialog tracks of a film or video production to mono, stereo, multichannel or whatever audio format is desired for the final print master.
Reaction Shot A shot of a player listening while another player's voice continues on the sound track.
RealPlayer A cross-platform media player app, developed by RealNetworks. The media player is compatible with numerous container file formats of the multimedia realm, including MP3, MP4, QuickTime File Format, Windows Media format, and the proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo formats.
Real Time Occurring immediately, without delay for rendering.
RealVideo A suite of proprietary video compression formats developed by RealNetworks – the specific format changes with the version.
Rear Projection A technique where the actor stands in front of a screen and the background is projected onto the screen behind them.
Red Herring In scriptwriting, a red herring is a false lead, assumed outcome or obvious solution that a writer plants in a story to fool the audience from guessing the real outcome.
Reduction Printing A copy of a film done with an optical printer to a smaller size or gauge than the original.
Redundant Array Of Independent Disks (RAID) A data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.
Reel A strip of film wound upon a disc for attaching to a projector.
Reference Frame Frames of a compressed video that are used to define future frames.
Reference Tone A sound meant to be used by audio engineers in order to adjust the playback equipment so that the accompanying media is at a comfortable volume for the audience.
Reflectance The effectiveness of a surface of a material in reflecting radiant energy.
Reflected Light Light which emanates indirectly from a light source, measured from the object it strikes to the source.
Reflector Lighting accessory helpful for spreading light as well as filling in shadows.
Refresh Rate The number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer.
Regular Reflection A term used to describe highly directional, focused light. This is often perceived as a very 'hard' light.
Relational Editing Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content.
Release The authorization by the owner of a completed film to a public exhibition of the film.
Rembrandt Lighting Standard lighting technique that is used in studio portrait photography and cinematography.
Remote Videomaking performed "on location," outside controlled studio environment.
Remote Camera A camera placed by a photographer in areas where the photographer generally cannot be at the camera to snap the shutter.
Render The process of calculating effects in an image for playback or final output.
Render Farm An array of computers that each process small segments of a large task in order to speed it up.
Resolution The total number of bits that a digitized image contains, or that a digital display can show. Typically expressed as the number of pixels referencing the width and height of the image or display: 800px x 600px.
Rigger Person who works on ropes, booms, lifts, hoists and the like for a stage production, film, or television show.
Rigging A technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.
Rim Light A hard backlight on the subject that is generally more intense than the key light.
Ring Flash A circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens.
Ringing A copy of the transmitted image super-imposed with an offset on top of the main image.
Ring Light A circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens.
Ripple Automatic updating of an Edit Decision List after making a change to the list.
Ripple Dissolve A ripple dissolve is a type of transition characterized by a wavering image that is usually employed to indicate a change to flashback material, commonly a character's memory of an event.
RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) A sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). Its basic functionality and packet structure is defined in RFC 3550. RTCP provides out-of-band statistics and control information for an RTP session.
Run-length Encoding (RLE) A form of lossless data compression in which runs of data (sequences in which the same data value occurs in many consecutive data elements) is stored as a single data value and count, rather than as the original run.
Rushes This refers to daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes.
Scaling The resizing of a digital image. In video technology, the magnification of digital material is known as upscaling or resolution enhancement.
Scan Conversion The process of representing continuous graphics objects as a collection of discrete pixels.
Scan Line Result of television's swift scanning process which sweeps out a series of horizontal lines from left to right, then down a bit and left to right again.
SCART An audio/video connector used in consumer equipment, especially in Europe.
Scenarist A writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, and video games, are based.
Scene A sequence of related shots usually constituting action in one particular location.
Scene Heading A basic set description located at the top of a script scene, written in all caps, providing information as to whether the scene is interior vs. exterior, day or night, and where it takes place.
Scenography The practice of crafting stage environments or atmospheres.
Schüfftan Process An in-camera special effect whereby live actors appear inside miniatures.
Scoop The light that provides a soft-edged field of light used to provide additional subject illumination to reduce harsh shadows or areas not highlighted by the key light.
Scope A trade name for a system of anamorphic lenses and widescreen (2.35:1) projection.
Score The original-music composition for a motion picture or television production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited.
Scotopic Lumens The portion of luminous output that gets a response from the rods in human eyes.
SheerVideo A family of proprietary lossless video codecs developed by BitJazz Inc. to enable the capture, editing, playback, and archival of professional-quality lossless video formats in real-time on low-power inexpensive hardware such as laptop computers and video cameras.
Shooting Script The version of a screenplay used during the production of a motion picture.
Shorten (SHN) A file format used for compressing audio data. It is a form of data compression of files and is used to losslessly compress CD-quality audio files (44.1 kHz 16-bit stereo PCM). Shorten is no longer developed.
Shot All pictorial material recorded by a camera. More strictly speaking, shots are intentional, isolated camera views which collectively comprise a scene.
Shotgun Mic A highly directional microphone, usually with a long, tubular body; used by the production sound mixer on location or on the set for film and television productions.
Shot List A full log of all the shots you want to include in your video.
Shot Noise The dominant noise in the darker parts of an image from an image sensor is typically that caused by statistical quantum fluctuations, that is, variation in the number of photons sensed at a given exposure level.
Shot Reverse Shot A film technique where one character is shown looking at another character (often off-screen), and then the other character is shown looking back at the first character.
Shoulder Rig A piece of equipment used to help stabilize a handheld camera.
Showreel A short piece of edited video or film footage showcasing a person's previous work.
Shutter In a camera, the mechanical component that allows light to reach the sensors for a set amount of time.
Shutter Speed One of several methods used to control the amount of light recorded by the camera.
Siamese A splitter that divides a power line into two parts.
Sibilance An exaggerated hissing in voice patterns.
Sider A flag up on the side of a lighting unit to block light.
SIGGRAPH (acr.) Special Interest Group on Computer GRAPHics and Interactive Techniques.
Sight Line An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she is looking at.
Sightline An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she is looking at.
Single-channel Video A video artwork using a single electronic source presented and exhibited from one playback device.
Single System A method of recording sound and picture on the same medium, most typically used in newsgathering.
Sizzle Reel A short piece of edited video or film footage showcasing a person's previous work.
Skeletal Animation A technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.
Skip Frame An optical printing effect which eliminates selected frames of the original scene to speed up the action.
Slate A device that combines a hinged clapper stick and a slate. These boards are designed to assist the synchronizing of pictures and sound during post-production.
Slave An audiotape or videotape transport, projector or mag film dubber whose movements follow the movement of a single master transport.
Slug A strip of film or digital effect used to fill in black areas on the timeline.
Slug Line A basic set description located at the top of a script scene, written in all caps, providing information as to whether the scene is interior vs. exterior, day or night, and where it takes place.
Smacker Video A video file format (with the .SMK file extension) developed by RAD Game Tools, and primarily used for full-motion video in video games.
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS) Sony Dynamic Digital Sound System. A film sound format which encodes eight tracks of digital audio outside of the sprocket holes on both edges of a film print.
Sorenson Media An American software company specializing in video encoding technology.
Sound Designer A film sound specialist responsible for the development and augmentation of all soundtrack material, or a significant portion thereof, and is ultimately in charge of the entire sound production.
Sound Effect A recorded or electronically produced sound that matches the visual action taking place onscreen.
Sound Marker A device that combines a hinged clapper stick and a slate. These boards are designed to assist the synchronizing of pictures and sound during post-production.
Sound Masking A phenomenon whereby one or more sound "trick" the ear into not hearing other, weaker, sound that are also present.
Sound Mixer The person responsible for capturing sound as it plays out live, determining microphone types and placement.
Sound Recordist The person responsible for capturing sound as it plays out live, determining microphone types and placement.
Sound Report A filmmaking term for a sheet of paper created by the Sound Mixer to record details of each file recorded during filming.
Soundstage A soundproof, hangar-like structure, building, or room, used for the production of theatrical film-making and television productions, usually located on a secured movie or television studio property.
Soundtrack Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog.
Sound Track Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog.
Soviet Montage Theory An approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing (montage is French for "assembly" or "editing").
Spatial Resolution The precision of a measurement with respect to space, or the real dimension that represents a pixel of the image.
Speed Of Sound The velocity of sound in air is 770 mi/hr. This speed, however, is influenced by temperature and air pressure.
Speex An audio compression codec specifically tuned for the reproduction of human speech and also a free software speech codec that may be used on VoIP applications and podcasts.
Spherical Aberration A type of aberration found in optical systems that use elements with spherical surfaces, such as a photographic lens.
Spike A short burst of voltage, current or energy on a transmission line or circuit.
Spill Light that is escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light that is falling where it is not wanted.
Spill Fill Light that is escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light that is falling where it is not wanted.
Splice The technique of compositing used to combine visual elements such as actors onto a virtual background. In traditional film-making, refers to the act of joining two pieces of film by any of several methods.
Spline A curve in 3D space defined by control points. Used for interpolation and smoothing.
Split Cut A type of cut in which the picture changes but the audio continues.
Split Edit A transition from one shot to another in film or video, where transition of the audio and video happen at different times.
Split Screen Optical or special effects shot in which two separate images are combined on each frame.
Sponsor The act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services.
Spool A flanged roll on which film is wound for general handling or projection.
Spotlight Radiates a well-defined directional beam of light, casting hard, distinct shadows.
Spotting Used in scoring and sound effects editing to identify the specific scenes or points where music cues or effects cues will take place. Usually, this will include information on length and style.
Sprocket Geared wheels that attach onto the perforations on the edge of a film roll and wind it through a mechanism into a camera or projector.
Standing Waves A deep sound in a small room or recording booth. It refers to low audio frequencies caused by long waves with short reflection patterns.
Star Filter Filter mounted at front of the camera lens gives videotaped light sources a starburst effect.
Start-up/closedown Test A chart with special patterns, placed in front of a television camera to generate a known reference signal that can be used to adjust the camera and all the equipment downstream from the camera.
Stock Numbers A series of numbers with key lettering printed along the edge of a 35 mm negative at intervals of one foot (16 frames or 64 perforations) and on a 16 mm negative at intervals of six inches (twenty frames).
Stock Shot Video footage that can be used again in other films.
Stop-action A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots.
Stop Motion An animated-film making technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion when the series of frames is played back as a fast sequence.
Stop Motion Substitution A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots.
Stop Trick A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots.
Story Arc The parabolic shift in polar attitudes of a character from point A to point B during the course of a story.
Storyboard A drawing that shows each scene of your video. A storyboard provides a concise plan for what you need to shoot or animate.
Storytelling The social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.
Stream A sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals (packets of data or data packets) used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted.
Streaming Media Digital video content that can be transmitted and viewed simultaneously. Typically used for broadcasting "live" events in real-time.
Subpixels A spatial resolution smaller than that of pixels.
Subplot A secondary strand of the plot that is a supporting side story for any story or the main plot.
SubRip (SRT) A free software program for Windows which extracts subtitles and their timings from various video formats to a text file.
Subsampling A color video signal encoding and compression technique that favors luminance over chroma (color) information.
Subscription VOD (SVOD) Subscription business model in which subscribers are charged a regular fee to access unlimited programs. Examples of these services include Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Disney+, and Hulu.
SubStation Alpha (SSA) A subtitle file format created by CS Low (also known as Kotus) that allows for more advanced subtitles than the conventional SRT and similar formats.
Substitution Splice A cinematic special effect in which filmmakers achieve an appearance, disappearance, or transformation by altering one or more selected aspects of the mise-en-scène between two shots while maintaining the same framing and other aspects of the scene in both shots.
Subtext In scriptwriting, the undercurrent of emotions and polar attitude shifts that lie beneath physical action and between the lines of dialogue.
Subtitles Text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can also be at the top of the screen if there is already text at the bottom of the screen.
Sun Raster A raster graphics file format used on SunOS by Sun Microsystems.
Supercut A genre of video editing consisting of a montage of short clips with the same theme.
Superzoom A type of photographic zoom lens with unconventionally large focal length factors, typically ranging from wide-angle to extreme long lens focal lengths in one lens.
Supporting Actor An actor who performs a role in a play or film below that of the leading actor(s), and above that of a bit part.
Supporting Character A character in a narrative that is not the focus of the primary storyline, but appears or is mentioned in the story enough to be more than just a minor character or a cameo appearance.
SurCaps Translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera, theatre, or other musical performances.
Surround Sound Sound that is reproduced through speakers above or behind the audience.
Surtitles Translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera, theatre, or other musical performances.
Suspense In scriptwriting, a state of mental uncertainty, anxiety, of being undecided, or of being doubtful.
Sustain The amplitude of a sound or musical note while it is being held.
Sweetening Enhancing the sound of a recording or a particular sound effect with equalization or some other signal processing device.
Swishblog A unique way of vid-blogging (invented by Vimean Justin Johnson) that makes use of quick pans or tilts at the beginning and end of every shot to transition between clips and give your video a fun, dream-like feel.
Swish Pan Extremely rapid camera movement from left to right or right to left, appearing as an image blur.
Switcher A device used to select between several different video sources and, in some cases, compositing video sources together to create special effects.
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET) Standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) Standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Termination Switch A switch that connects and disconnects a load resistance to a video input, used to terminate the line.
Test Card A chart with special patterns, placed in front of a television camera to generate a known reference signal that can be used to adjust the camera and all the equipment downstream from the camera.
Test Pattern A chart with special patterns, placed in front of a television camera to generate a known reference signal that can be used to adjust the camera and all the equipment downstream from the camera.
Tight On (CU) A type of shot taken at close range that tightly frames the subject.
Tilt Fixed up and down, or vertical, movements made with the camera.
Time-division Multiplexing (TDM) A method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Time-lapse A technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured is much more spread out than the frequency used to view the sequence.
Time-lapse Photography A technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much more spread out than the frequency used to view the sequence.
Time Base Correction When an electronic signal travels through electronic circuitry or even through long coaxial cable runs, delay problems may occur. This is manifested as a displaced image and special electronic circuitry is needed to correct it.
Time Base Corrector (TBC) A device used to rectify any problems with a video signal's sync pulses by generating a new clean time base and synchronizing any other incoming video to this reference.
Timecode A high-frequency signal that allows the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment.
Time Code A high-frequency signal that allows the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment.
Timed Text The presentation of text media in synchrony with other media, such as audio and video.
TV Aerial Plug A colloquial name for a connector used to connect coaxial cables with each other and with terrestrial VHF/UHF roof antennas, antenna signal amplifiers, CATV distribution equipment, TV sets and FM / DAB-radio receivers.
TV Safe The area of a filmed image which will normally appear on a home television set after a film has been transferred in telecine and then transmitted.
Tweening The process of generating intermediate frames between two images, called key frames, to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image.
Twin-lead A threaded version of the BNC connector.
Twisted Pair A type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility.
Two Shot A camera view including two subjects, most generally applicable to interview situations.
Type C SMPTE standard for 1-inch non-segmented helical video recording format.
U-matic Most popular professional/industrial video format employing larger cassettes and three-quarter-inch tape.
UHD Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
UHDTV Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
Ultra-high-definition Television Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
Ultra HD Television Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
Ultraviolet Light (UV) A type of electromagnetic radiation, invisible to the human eye (i.e., beyond the visible spectrum) with a wavelength of 10 to 380 nanometers.
Umbrella Lighting accessory available in various sizes usually made of textured gold or silver fabric. Facilitates soft, shadowless illumination by reflecting light onto a scene.
Undercranking The process of slowing the frame rate of a camera down, so that when the captured pictures are played at the normal frame rate the action appears to be in fast motion.
Underexposed Film that has not been exposed to light for a long enough time to provide proper contrast and thus appears dim.
Underscan A video or computer image reduced so that all four edges are visible on-screen, leaving it surrounded by black borders.
Underscore An underscore is a soft, noiseless soundtrack theme which accompanies the action in performance.
Unidirectional A highly selective microphone pickup pattern rejects sound coming from behind while absorbing that from in front.
Uniform Noise The noise caused by quantizing the pixels of a sensed image to a number of discrete levels is known as quantization noise.
Unsqueeze A print or image in which the distorted image of an anamorphic negative has been corrected for normal projection or display.
Upconversion A system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution, a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling."
Uplighting Lighting method where an object or surface is lit from below, with a luminaire that directs its output upward. Uplighting is commonly used in lighting applications that require minimal glare and uniform general illuminance levels.
Upscaling A system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution, a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling."
VHS Compact (VHS-C) A compact VHS videocassette format, introduced by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) in 1982, and used primarily for consumer-grade compact analog recording camcorders.
Video An electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.
Video-in Video-out (VIVO) A graphics port that enables some video cards to have bidirectional (input and output) analog video transfer through a mini-DIN connector, usually of the 9-pin variety, and a specialized splitter cable (which can sometimes also transfer analog audio).
Video Acceleration API (VA-API) A royalty-free API that allows applications such as VLC media player or GStreamer to use hardware video acceleration capabilities, usually provided by the graphics processing unit (GPU).
Video Amplifier Video amplifiers are devices that amplify the power of the video signals, using bandwidths that differ depending on the target.
Video Assist The process of simultaneously recording filmed picture onto videotape by means of the same lens system in order to immediately evaluate a take as soon as it is completed.
Video Capture The process of converting an analog video signal—such as that produced by a video camera, DVD player, or television tuner—to digital video and sending it to local storage or to external circuitry.
Videocassette A permanently encased videotape that winds and rewinds from reel-to-reel.
Video Compression Picture Types In the field of video compression, a video frame is compressed using different algorithms with different advantages and disadvantages, centered mainly around the amount of data compression.
Video On Demand (VOD) A video media distribution system that allows users to access video entertainment without a traditional video entertainment device and without the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule.
Videotape Format A variety of formats are used to record video. They vary by tape width: (8mm, 1/2 inch, 3/4 inch, 1 inch), signal form: (composite, Y/C, component), data storage type (analog or digital) and signal standard (PAL, NTSC, SECAM).
Video Toaster Software/hardware developed by NewTek for the Amiga Computer. Made special effects affordable for the low budget producer.
Video Wall A special multi-monitor setup that consists of multiple monitors tiled together contiguously or overlapped in order to form one large screen.
Viewfinder The part of the camera you look through to see the image from your lens’ field of view.
Vignette Visual special effect whereby viewers see images through a perceived keyhole, heart shape, diamond, etc.
Vignetting Undesirable darkening at the corners of a picture, as if viewer's peering through a telescope, due to improper matching of the lens to the camera.
VirtualDub A free and open-source video capture and video processing utility for Microsoft Windows written by Avery Lee.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) A standard file format for representing 3-dimensional (3D) interactive vector graphics, designed particularly with the World Wide Web in mind. It has been superseded by X3D.