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Charge-coupled device

A semiconductor chip with a light-sensitive grid used for converting images to electrical signals. CCD is the core technology behind digital photography and video.

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins.

In recent years CCD has become a major technology for digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal-oxide-semiconductors (MOS) capacitors. These capacitors are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface; the CCD is then used to read out these charges. Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are widely used in professional, medical, and scientific applications where high-quality image data are required. In applications with less exacting quality demands, such as consumer and professional digital cameras, active pixel sensors, also known as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are generally used; the large quality advantage CCDs enjoyed early on has narrowed over time.

Key Terms

area
capacitors
ccd
ccds
charge
charge coupled device
device
example conversion
movement electrical charge
time

Additional Resources

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Acronymn

ccd

Synonymns

Charge-coupled device
(none found)

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Last modified on May 9 2019
Content adapted from Wikipedia
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