The dynamic microphone (also known as the moving-coil microphone) works via electromagnetic induction. They are robust, relatively inexpensive, and resistant to moisture. This, coupled with their potentially high gain before feedback, makes them ideal for on-stage use.
Dynamic microphones use the same dynamic principle as in a loudspeaker, only reversed. A small movable induction coil, positioned in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, is attached to the diaphragm. When sound enters through the windscreen of the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm. When the diaphragm vibrates, the coil moves in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction. A single dynamic membrane does not respond linearly to all audio frequencies. For this reason, some microphones utilize multiple membranes for the different parts of the audio spectrum and then combine the resulting signals. Combining the multiple signals correctly is difficult; designs that do this are rare and tend to be expensive. On the other hand, there are several designs that are more specifically aimed towards isolated parts of the audio spectrum. The AKG D112, for example, is designed for a bass response rather than treble. In audio engineering, several kinds of microphones are often used at the same time to get the best results.