Sampling rate

The reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal. A common example is a conversion of a sound wave (a continuous signal) to a sequence of samples (a discrete-time signal).

A commonly seen unit of sampling rate is Hz, which stands for Hertz and means "samples per second". As an example, 48 kHz is 48,000 samples per second.

When it is necessary to capture audio covering the entire 20–20,000 Hz range of human hearing, such as when recording music or many types of acoustic events, audio waveforms are typically sampled at 44.1 kHz (CD), 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, or 96 kHz. The approximately double-rate requirement is a consequence of the Nyquist theorem. Sampling rates higher than about 50 kHz to 60 kHz cannot supply more usable information for human listeners. Early professional audio equipment manufacturers chose sampling rates in the region of 40 to 50 kHz for this reason.

There has been an industry trend towards sampling rates well beyond the basic requirements: such as 96 kHz and even 192 kHz Even though ultrasonic frequencies are inaudible to humans, recording and mixing at higher sampling rates is effective in eliminating the distortion that can be caused by foldback aliasing. Conversely, ultrasonic sounds may interact with and modulate the audible part of the frequency spectrum (intermodulation distortion), degrading the fidelity. One advantage of higher sampling rates is that they can relax the low-pass filter design requirements for ADCs and DACs, but with modern oversampling sigma-delta converters this advantage is less important.

The Audio Engineering Society recommends 48 kHz sampling rate for most applications but gives recognition to 44.1 kHz for Compact Disc (CD) and other consumer uses, 32 kHz for transmission-related applications, and 96 kHz for higher bandwidth or relaxed anti-aliasing filtering. Both Lavry Engineering and J. Robert Stuart state that the ideal sampling rate would be about 60 kHz, but since this is not a standard frequency, recommend 88.2 or 96 kHz for recording purposes.

Sampling rate
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