Three-two pull down

The method used to map the 24 fps of film onto the 30 fps of 525-line TV.

Three-two pull-down (3:2 pull down) is a term used in filmmaking and television production for the post-production process of transferring film to video.

It converts 24 frames per second into 29.97 frames per second. Roughly speaking, converting every 4 frames into 5 frames plus a slight slow down in speed. The film runs at a standard rate of 24 frames per second, whereas the NTSC video has a signal frame rate of 29.97 frames per second. Every interlaced video frame has two fields for each frame. The three-two pull-down is where the telecine adds a third video field (a half-frame) to every second video frame, but the untrained eye cannot see the addition of this extra video field. In the figure, the film frames A-D are true or original images since they have been photographed as a complete frame. The A, B, and D frames on the right in the NTSC footage are original frames. The third and fourth frames have been created by blending movie fields from different frames.

Key Terms

frames per second
post production process
television production
three two pull


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Three-two pull down
3:2 pull-down


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Sources & Credits

Last modified on May 15 2020
Content adapted from Wikipedia
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